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Capitoline Insula - Ancient Rome Live

Capitoline Insula - Ancient Rome Live

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Insula (plural: insulae) was an ancient Latin term for a city block, but it was also the name of a type of tenement building common in ancient Roman cities. These cramped, often haphazardly constructed buildings usually had lower levels made of brick, while the higher stories were constructed of cheaper material, particularly wood. The higher levels were also often more poorly constructed and less spacious.

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History

In 1896 Friedrich Polak thought the Capitolium might have looked like this in the Republican Age, with the temple towering above the entire city.

When one crosses the Piazza del Campidoglio from the Cordonata, at the end of the square on the left and on the right. The ones on the left lead to the back entrance of the Santa Maria in Aracoeli Church and the ones on the right to the Capitolium.

Both sets of stairs were designed in the 16th century by Vignola. The steps on the right also end at what is called the Portico di Vignola.

Construction of the three temples was started during the reign of the first Etruscan king, Tarquinio Prisco. Although the work continued under his successor Tarquinio il Superbo, inauguration did not take place until the beginning of the Republic (509 BC).

Description

Beschrijving

The size of the Capitolium (53 by 63 metres) would indicate that the building was meant to impress. It took over the role of religious centre from a building on the Monte Cavo (in what is now called Rocca di Papa). At this point Rome also became the capital of the Lega Latina.

Parts of the foundation of the buidling can be seen from the Museo Nuovo Capitolino. Underneath the Palazzo Caffarelli in the Via del Tempio di Giove, protected by a glass vitrine, the tuff stone podium on which the temple stood can be viewed.

The temple had six columns at both the front and on each side. There were no columns at the back, where the alcoves containing the Gods’ statues were located. Jupiter was the most important god and the symbolical father of the city, Minerva was the goddess of wisdom and Juno was supposed to warn the city against immenent danger.

Juno‘s temple was also where the holy geese used to live. The birds were kept there as a reminder of the cackling when the Gallic tribes attacked Rome in 390 BC.

Three times (83 BC, 69 AD and 80 AD) the temple was destroyed by fire. Each time it was rebuilt.

Drie keer (83 voor Chr. en 69 en 80 na Chr.) werd de tempel door brand verwoest en evenzoveel keren weer opgebouwd.

Treasures, including a golden quadriga (which was really made of bronze), were supposed to be stored in the Capitolium. Underneath the temple gold and silver pieces donated by the population were preserved. (In 1919, when the Palazzo Caffarelli was destroyed, a diviner was even hired to try and find this treasure.)

Area Capitolina

The square in front of the Capitolium was called Area Capitolina. Landslides have caused most of this area to collapse, however. The only surviving part is the area where the garden of the Via del Tempio di Giove is located.

The monuments that used to decorate have disappeared, apart from one square construction, which was however split into two parts when the Via del Tempio di Giove was constructed. It is supposed to have been the podium of a temple dedicated to Zeus the Protector, which had been built by Domitian after he had survived an attack by the Vitellians on the Capitolium.

According to another theory the building was the Tensarium, a sort of garage for the holy carriages used by the Gods on special occasions.


Rione X - Campitelli

Located between the Roman Forum and the Campidoglio Hill, the 10th rione of Rome is the best known and vital in the city. The numerous archaeological and museum sites occupy over 60% of its territory.

Every year, tourists converge here to visit the Roman Forum, the archaeological, political, legal, religious, and economic center of ancient Rome, Piazza del Campidoglio, designed by Michelangelo, which houses Palazzo Senatorio, the seat of the Mayor of Rome, the Capitoline Museums, the oldest public museum in the world, founded in 1471 by Sixtus IV, constituted by Palazzo dei Conservatori and Palazzo Nuovo, the super white monument to Vittorio Emanuele II, the Vittoriano, often irreverently compared to a typewriter or, even, to a wedding cake, Piazza Margana, a jewel of medieval Rome, Via di San Gregorio connecting the Colosseum with the Circus Maximus, and then via dei Fori Imperiali, one of the most scenic streets in Rome on either side of which are the monumental remains of the forums of Caesar, Augustus, Nerva, Pace, and Traiano.

The name of the district derives from Campus Telluris (dusty field), or is a corruption of the word Capitolium, the hill on which the most important temple of ancient Rome, dedicated to the Capitoline triad formed by Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva stood. A legend has it that a priceless treasure should be found right under the temple, but until today, despite the searches and demolitions that have affected the area, no one has ever found it.

On the southern side of the hill is the Rupe Tarpea, the rocky wall from which the prisoners of ancient Rome were thrown into the underlying Roman Forum.

Built by King Anco Marzio in the 7th century BC, the Mamertine Prison, or Carcer Tullianum, located at Clivo Argentario, inside the Roman Forum, is the oldest in Rome. According to tradition, apostles Peter and Paul were locked up here before undergoing martyrdom. In the Mamertine Prison, other illustrious figures were executed by strangulation or beheading among the best known were Jugurta, king of Numidia, in 104 BC. and Vercingetorix, king of the Gauls, in 46 BC.

Leaning against the east side of the Vittoriano, at the slopes of the Ara Coeli staircase, is the Ara Coeli Insula, an ancient Roman condominium consisting of rental houses. Unlike the Domus, the houses owned by citizens, the insulae were the houses that citizens could rent in the imperial era. Given the need for housing for the growing population and the lack of building land, these developed in height this one, in particular, stood on at least five floors. The large arcades of the portico housed shops and laboratories, while on the three upper levels, originally divided into small apartments, about 380 people lived.

Borders: Piazza di San Marco, Via di San Marco, Via d'Aracoeli, Via Margana, Piazza Margana, Via dei Delfini, Via Cavalletti, Via della Tribuna di Campitelli, Via del Foro Piscario, Via del Teatro di Marcello, Vico Jugario, Piazza della Consolazione, Via dei Fienili, Via di San Teodoro, Piazza di Santa Anastasia, Via dei Cerchi, Via di San Gregorio, Via dei Fori Imperiali, Piazza Venezia.

The rione coat of arms is a black dragon's head on a white background. According to a medieval legend, the Devil turned himself into a dragon and infested the Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Roman Forum. Pope Sylvester I confronted him and managed to kick him out.


An Ancient Roman insula and the bustling neighborhood that surrounds it. Most of Rome's citizens lived in large apartment buildings such as this.

In Roman architecture, an insula was a kind of apartment building that housed most of the urban citizen population of ancient Rome, including ordinary people of lower- or middle-class status (the plebs) and all but the wealthiest from the upper-middle class (the equites)

Living quarters were typically smallest in the building's uppermost floors, with the largest and most expensive apartments being located on the bottom floors. The insulae could be up to six or seven stories high, and despite height restrictions in the Imperial era, a few reached eight or nine stories

The entire structure usually had about 6 to 7 apartments, each had about 1000 sq ft (92 sq m). The only surviving insula in Rome is the 5 storey Insula dell’Ara Coeli dating from the 2nd century AD which is found at the foot of the Capitoline Hill.


Insula (building)

In Roman architecture, an insula (Latin for "island", plural insulae) was one of two things: either a kind of apartment building, or a city block. [1] [2] [3] This article deals with the former definition, that of a type of building.

Insulae housed most of the urban citizen population of ancient Rome's massive population ranging from 800,000 to 1 million inhabitants in the early imperial period. [4] Residents of an Insula included ordinary people of lower- or middle-class status (the plebs) and all but the wealthiest from the upper-middle class (the equites).

The traditional elite and the very wealthy lived in a domus, a large single-family residence, but the two kinds of housing were intermingled in the city and not segregated into separate neighborhoods. [5] The ground-level floor of the insula was used for tabernae, shops and businesses, with living spaces above. Like modern apartment buildings, an insula might have a name, usually referring to the owner of the building. [6] The owners of these buildings were typically wealthy Romans and even those in the Senate. [7] It was also possible for an insula to be owned by several people, such as Cicero, who owned a one-eighth share of an insula and presumably took in one-eighth of its revenue. [8] The inhabitants of the insula paid rent to secure their accommodation.


★ Capitoline geese

Rome: the she wolf suckling the twins geese noticing enemies trying to enter the Capitol quietly, in 390 BC Fragment of the relief with the Capitoline geese. Roman History Hit on Twitter: Sacred Geese once saved the. While these proceedings were taking place at Veii, the Citadel and Capitol of But they did not escape the notice of the geese, which were sacred to Juno and. Sacred Geese – history and live. Before they reached the summit the Capitoline Geese honked and squawked until the Romans woke and forced the Gauls to the bottom and saved the city. Not​ Следующая Войти Настройки. Honor the gods The Capitoline Geese by Henri Paul Motte, 1889. The Geese were actually a sacred animal of Juno, kept and fed on the Capitoline despite the dwindling food. they began quacking and honking.

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Sacred Geese once saved the Roman Republic from utter destruction. In 390 BC their honking alerted the Roman defenders on the Capitoline. African geese aggressive Forbidden Cuts. The Capitoline Geese by Henri Paul Motte, 1889. Image: Public domain via media Commons X. Today, June 1, marks the dedication of. Anecdotes about Rome CITY ANIMALS Mercure Local Stories. Geese in Front of Capitoline Temple of Juno Warning of Arrival of Gauls Giclee Print. Find art you love and shop high quality art prints, photographs, framed. Titus Livius Livy, The History of Rome, Book 5, chapter 47. Have you ever heard the saying The cackling of geese saved Rome? Apparently even Albert Einstein famously said: Remember Capitol of Rome was once.

The Capitoline Geese InfoBarrel.

While the Roman soldiers and watch dogs slept, Junos sacred geese on the Capitol warned Rome of the Gallic attack in 390 BC. Signed and dated Henri Motte. Geese Early. Posts about Sacred Geese written by historyandlive. soldiers holed themselves up on one of Romes seven famous hills, the Capitoline Hill. Capitoline geese Article about Capitoline geese by The Free. The Messenger Goose. Saint Martin with Goose. In legend, geese saved Rome by squawking and honking so loudly in their enclosure. Regio I Insula XI Basilica I,XI,5 Ostia. Hall of the Geese, Conservators Apartment, Capitoline Museums The two bronze geese that give the room its name were placed here in the XVIII century,.

For Kids Legend of the Capitoline Geese kids can travel.

The story of Manlius, Junos Sacred Geese, and the Gallic Siege of Rome 390 or 387 BC are centered on the Capitoline Hill. Share this:. Blog Vaycaypedia – know before you go. Cackling Geese On The Capitol, Rome is a drawing by Mary Evans Picture Library which was uploaded on February 1st, 2018. The drawing. STOCK IMAGE, 95021947, 01AFMDQY, DeAgostini Search. The story most commonly associated with geese refers to the Capitoline geese in Rome that smelt or heard the Gauls climbing the hill to the Capitol in the night.

Ancient DNA study sheds light on domestication history of geese in.

But at Rome some of the barbarians, passing by chance near the place at which Pontius by night had got into the Capitol, spied in several. 40 Animals that Changed History History. Lewis.6 I shall concentrate almost exclusively upon the Capitol and the geese much else may then fall into place. Not all the evidence for the Gallic capture of. Kee Facts: How Swiss Guards And Sacred Geese Saved Rome NPR. Learn about the legend of the Capitoline Geese whether you are writing a school report or visiting Rome with mom and dad.

Manlius and the Geese Flashcards Quizlet.

Bronze figure of a goose, British Museum, BM 1959, 0601.1. This is of course connected with the legendary role of the Capitoline geese, sacred to Juno, which​. N 387 B.C., Gauls had conquered Rome except for Capitoline Hill. Bronze Geese and Michelangelo Capitoline Museum Rome. The Hall of the Geese – this room, decorated with gilded stuccoes and. Between Geese and the Auguraculum: The Origin of the Cult jstor. Legend tells that the geese of the Campidoglio Romes city hall managed to There are two more symbolic animals related to the history of the Capitoline Hill. From history to legend: m. manlius and the geese Oxford Academic. The Arx, or citadel, of the Capitoline Hill, was the site of the. Romans Temple of by Junos sacred geese during the Gallic invasion of Rome in 390. B.C.E. The. Capitoline geese – Mythosphere. Capitoline Hill: from the temples of Jupiter Capitoline and Juno Moneta to the to the goddess closed in the enclosure the famous geese of the Campidoglio.

The Hall Of The Geese In Capitoline Museum, Rome, Italy Editorial.

She had a large and famous temple on the Arx, a height on the Capitoline Hill in on the Capitol, but the geese of Juno started a honking ruckus as geese are. Elfinspell: 390 B. C. The Geese of the Capitol, excerpt by Livy. These Capitoline geese had resided on the hill prior to the Temples construction and apparently alerted the Romans to an invasion of Celts in 390 BC.

The Gauls and the sacred geese on the Capitoline Pro Romanis.

The Sacred Geese. Rome was all destroyed except the Capitol, where the little army was intrenched behind the massive walls which had been built with such. How Holy Geese Saved the Republic During The First Sack of Rome. Продолжительность: 2:23. Roman bronze goose imperial period Capitoline Roman and. According to legend Marcus Manlius Capitolinus was alerted to the Gallic attack by the sacred geese of Juno the Capitoline geese., juno rome geese. Seven Times Rome Was Sacked HISTORY. That the Capitoline geese were sacred to Juno, which proves that by 390 the goddess cult had already been well established on the hill. Whereas in. Diodorus. History of Rome Lonely Planet Travel Information. The Gauls had conquered all of the city except for the Capitoline Hill, which the Romans defended vigorously. According to legend, Gallic troops.

Capitoline geese by FD - Fur Affinity net.

One of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. adj. 2. of or pertaining to the Capitoline or to the ancient temple of Jupiter that stood on this hill. 1610–. Capitoline Hill: History of the Hill. From the Temples of the Origins to. The Capitoline geese. By the 4th century BC Rome had established itself as the dominant force in central Italy. However, it was still far from invincible and in 390​. Battle of the Allia pedia. Before they reached the summit the Capitoline Geese honked and squawked until the Romans woke and forced the Gauls to the bottom and saved the city. Not​.

Geese in Front of Capitoline Temple of Juno Warning of Arrival of.

Not even Androcles lion or Caesars elephants were able to surpass the famous Capitoline Geese, that because of their contribution to the. Ancient Rome and the Legend of the Capitoline Geese Layers of. Honorthegods: The Capitoline Geese by Henri Paul Motte, 1889. Image: Public domain via media Commons X. Today, June 1, marks the. Hall of the Geese, Conservators Apartment, Capitoline Museums. Опубликовано: 4 июл. 2020 г. The Sacred Geese of Juno That Saved Rome Stock Vector. Redoubt on the Capitoline Hill. The best known story is that of the geese, whose quacks in the night warn the Romans of a Gallic sneak attack. Things to do in Rome Visit the Capitoline Museums. Someone may not know that this hill is also the home of many events where historical and legendary protagonists meet. One of the most popular. Capitoline Hill definition of Capitoline Hill by The Free Dictionary. III Nones Sextilis CCCLXVII AUC, two weeks after the Allia River defeat from the Gauls of Brennus, its when the Legend states that the geese.

The Capitoline Geese: SleepingRome Blog – Rome Tourism.

The Capitoline Museums are home to one of the most important collection Getting its name from the two bronze geese statues from the XVIII. The holy GEESE that SAVED ROME! YouTube. Geese sacred to Juno warned of their approach. Image ID: BF4AF6. n 387 B.C., Gauls had conquered Rome except for Capitoline. The Sacred Geese Heritage History. If stones could speak, they could tell so many stories The birth of Rome, the triumphs of Caesar, the fire of the temple of Jupiter, the coronation of Petrarch, the. ‎The Geese of the Capitol Hill on Apple Books. Now, the Capitoline Hill was the site of the temple of Juno. Since geese were sacred to Juno, the priests kept a flock of geese on the hill. And even though the.

They may have Gundams but weve got the Capitoline Geese Reddit.

From some site One of the most famous stories about Ancient Rome is the legend of the Capitoline Geese. To understand this tale a little history is needed. Highlights of the Capitoline Museums in Rome ARW Travels. Ostia, The geese of the Capitol. Creator. Jona Lendering. Museum. Ostia, Museo Archeologico Ostiense. Licence. CC0 1.0 Universal. Linked. The bronze goose from the Hippodrome Chapter 5 Fountains and. The Battle of the Allia was a battle fought c. 390 BC between the Senones and the Roman They left a small body to guard there against any attack from the Capitoline and went through the streets for plunder. They were heard not by the guards and the dogs but by the geese sacred to the goddess Juno, which woke up. Roman For Sale Geese Breed Information Omlet. 390 B.C. Davis, William Stearnes, Readings in Ancient History, Vol. 2, The Geese of the Capitol, extract from Livy, History, Early Roman History, Bohn English. File: media Commons. The Gauls were poised to enter the City but as the first Gauls climbed over a balcony and into the Capitol, the geese started honking loudly and flapping their​.

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Roman Forum

The Roman Forum (Foro Romano) is a forum surrounded by the ruins of the most important ancient governmental buildings of Roman Empire located in the city center of Rome. For several centuries, the Forum was the main center of everyday life in the Eternal City: all triumphal processions, elections, most important public speeches, criminal trials, gladiator matches and commercial affairs took place there. It is located between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills and contains archaeological excavations attracting around 5 million visitors every year.


Building types

Forum, Pompeii, looking toward Mt. Vesuvius (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Roman cities were typically focused on the forum (a large open plaza, surrounded by important buildings), which was the civic, religious and economic heart of the city. It was in the city’s forum that major temples (such as a Capitoline temple, dedicated to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) were located, as well as other important shrines. Also useful in the forum plan were the basilica (a law court), and other official meeting places for the town council, such as a curia building. Quite often the city’s meat, fish and vegetable markets sprang up around the bustling forum. Surrounding the forum, lining the city’s streets, framing gateways, and marking crossings stood the connective architecture of the city: the porticoes, colonnades, arches and fountains that beautified a Roman city and welcomed weary travelers to town. Pompeii, Italy is an excellent example of a city with a well preserved forum.

House of Diana, Ostia, late 2nd century C.E. (photo: Sebastià Giralt, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Romans had a wide range of housing. The wealthy could own a house (domus) in the city as well as a country farmhouse (villa), while the less fortunate lived in multi-story apartment buildings called insulae. The House of Diana in Ostia, Rome’s port city, from the late 2nd c. C.E. is a great example of an insula. Even in death, the Romans found the need to construct grand buildings to commemorate and house their remains, like Eurysaces the Baker, whose elaborate tomb still stands near the Porta Maggiore in Rome.

The tomb of Eurysaces the baker, Rome, c. 50-20 B.C.E. (photo: Jeremy Cherfas, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

The Romans built aqueducts throughout their domain and introduced water into the cities they built and occupied, increasing sanitary conditions. A ready supply of water also allowed bath houses to become standard features of Roman cities, from Timgad, Algeria to Bath, England. A healthy Roman lifestyle also included trips to the gymnasium. Quite often, in the Imperial period, grand gymnasium-bath complexes were built and funded by the state, such as the Baths of Caracalla which included running tracks, gardens and libraries.

Aqueduct (reconstruction). Aqueducts supplied Rome with clean water brought from sources far from the city. In this view, we see an aqueduct carried on piers passing through a built-up neighborhood. Elements of the model © 2008 The Regents of the University of California, © 2011 Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, © 2012 Frischer Consulting. All rights reserved. Image © 2012 Bernard Frischer

Entertainment varied greatly to suit all tastes in Rome, necessitating the erection of many types of structures. There were Greek style theaters for plays as well as smaller, more intimate odeon buildings, like the one in Pompeii, which were specifically designed for musical performances. The Romans also built amphitheaters—elliptical, enclosed spaces such as the Colloseum—which were used for gladiatorial combats or battles between men and animals. The Romans also built a circus in many of their cities. The circuses, such as the one in Lepcis Magna, Libya, were venues for residents to watch chariot racing.

Arch of Titus (foreground) with the Colloseum in the background (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

The Romans continued to perfect their bridge building and road laying skills as well, allowing them to cross rivers and gullies and traverse great distances in order to expand their empire and better supervise it. From the bridge in Alcántara, Spain to the paved roads in Petra, Jordan, the Romans moved messages, money and troops efficiently.


Capitoline Insula - Ancient Rome Live - History

Basic Rome City Topography

Traditionally Rome is said to be founded on seven hills, but the history and the topography of Rome is a bit more complicated than that.

Rome's Seven Hills: The hills are not really isolated hills. Rather they are a series of ridges eroded from a plain above the floodplain of the Tiber river. Erosion has separated the ends of some of the ridges into freestanding heights. It's easy to understand if you look at the contour map below. Note also that the slopes of the hills and ridges were much steeper in ancient times and the valley bottoms were much closer to the level of the Tiber than they are today -- both natural action and human intervention have smoothed the contours and softened the edges.

Palatine Hill (Palatium = Palatino) The central hill and where the city of Rome was founded by Romulus according to legend. The myth is corroborated by archaeological finds from the iron age (10th century through 8th century BC ) of huts and primitive defensive walls around the hill. The Palatine remained the center of power throughout the history of Rome, first as the residential area of choice of the most wealthy patricians, later as the residence of the emperors. Significantly, the word palace stems from the name palatinus. The Velia, a northward extension of the Palatine, was the site of the first Roman temples in the Forum Romanum.

Capitoline Hill (Capitolium = Campidoglio) This hill was very steep and soon became the fortified stronghold of Rome. When the Gauls sacked Rome in 390 BCE, only the Capitol held out. Later it became the religious center, due to the presence of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus Best and Greatest. The Capitoline Hill has two summits, the Capitoline proper to the south and the Arx to the north, with the Asylum on the ridge between them. The Arx is now occupied by the church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli and the modern Vittoriano. The Asylum is now the Piazza di Campidoglio.

Quirinal Hill (Quirinalis = Quirinale) The Quirinal is the northernmost of four spurs of the high ground east of the Tiber that lay within the limits of Republican Rome. It rose above the Campus Martius and was attached to the Capitoline Hill by a low ridge. The hill is named after the ancient god Quirinus, a member of the earliest Capitoline Triad.

Viminal Hill (Viminalis = Viminale) The Viminal is a smaller ridge between the Quirinal Hill and the Esquiline Hill.

Esquiline Hill (Esquiliae = Esquilino) The Esquiline is one of the largest hills, between the Viminal Hill and the Caelian Hill. Various parts of the Esquiline Hill have separate names. The Cispian peak (Cispius) is a small ridge just north of the Esquiline and the western side is called Fagutal (Fagutalis) and the southern side Oppian (Oppius). The Esquiline Hill was connected to the Palatine Hill via a ridge called the Velia, which was all but leveled in late antiquity.

Caelian Hill (Caelius = Celio) The Caelian Hill is the southernmost of the four large spurs. It stretches from the area of San Giovanni in Laterano to the Colosseum. It had two high points, referred to as the Larger Caelian (Caelius maior), to the west, and the Smaller Caelian (Caelius minor), to the north.

Aventine Hill (Aventinus = Aventino) The Aventine Hill is to the south and the last of the seven hill. It is detached from the other hills, and separated from the Palatine Hill by the valley of the Circus Maximus. The Aventine was traditionally the territory of the plebeians, who had their main temples and sanctuaries there. It is shown at the very bottom of the map, south of the Capitoline and outside the dotted line of the Pomerium.


The Seven Hills of Rome Mnemonic: In Victorian times, every English schoolboy could recite the names of Rome's traditional Seven hills. (Girls weren't expected to know such things.) So how did they remember? They were taught a simple mnemonic to remember the first letter of the name of each hill.

Here it is, so that we can remember them too:
C an Q ueen V ictoria e at c old a pple p ie?

The first letters correspond to:
C apitoline, Q uirinal, V iminal, E squiline, C aelian, A ventine, and P alatine,

Other "unofficial" hills apparently need not be remembered.

Outside the ancient city limits were other hills, that would later be incorporated into the city as it grew.

Pincian Hill (Pincius) The Pincian Hill is to the north of the Quirinal Hill, overlooking the Campus Martius. The Pincian was mostly gardens, and was referred to as the Collis Hortolorum, the hill of gardens. There is still a park today with a beautiful view over the Piazza del Popolo.

The Aventine (Aventinus) is south of the Palatine and was one of the traditional seven hills. It is not labeled, but you can just see the beginning of its rise at the bottom edge of the map above. It is the traditional site of the rival settlement set up by Remus while Romulus was leading the settlement of the Palatine. It was always outside the Pomerium, and therefore was, along with the areas on the western bank of the Tiber, where foreigners were allowed to live. As noted above, it also was a traditional Plebian stronghold.

Across the Tiber were other hills :

Janiculum (Janiculum = Janiculo) The Janiculum is a tall, elongated ridge, oriented mostly north-south. In the earliest time the Janiculum was the northern border of Rome, with Etruscan territory on the other side. In times of war a flag would be planted on the hill to signal to the enemy that Rome was ready. The name is after Janus, the two-faced god.

Vatican Hill (Vaticanus = Vaticano) The Vatican Hill is parallel to the Janiculum, further north. It overlooked a flat area to the north, the Vatican Fields, where the Basilica of Saint Peter, the Vatican State and the Castel Sant'Angelo now are. St. Peter's Church and the Vatican are in their present location because the supposed site f the execution of St. Peter was at the base of an obelish in the center of the spina of the Circus of Nero built in the Vatican fields. Twentieth Century excavations found a monumental tomb off the north side of the Neronian circus that has been identified as the tomb of St. Peter. The Tomb is directly below the Papal altar of St. Peters Church. The obelisk was moved to its present location in the center of Piazza S. Pietro when the current church (still called New St. Peters) was built during the Renaissance. Castel Sant'Angelo was oricinally the tomb of Hadrian.

Where there are hills, there must be valleys:

The Forum Romanum is in the valley between the Palatine, the Capitoline and the Esquiline hills. The Republican Forum was built in the valley bottom and the Imperial Forums were built a little to the north on and into the slopes of the Quirinale Hill.

The Velabrum is the area between the Palatine and the Capitoline hills. In ancient times there was a slight rise here which made the area now covered by the Republican Forum ( = Foro Romano) an unusable swamp. To drain the swamp a larve sewer tunnel, the cloaca maxima, was driven through the Velabrum down to the Tiber. This project was realized during the late monarchical period, ca. 600 BC.

Between the Aventine and the Palatine is a long straight creek-bed depression where the Circus Maximus was later built.

Where the Velabrum and the Circus Maximus meets, between the Capitoline, Palatine and Aventine hills were the first Roman harbor and the marketplace of Rome, the Forum Boarium (Cattle Forum) and the Forum Holitarium (Vegetable Forum).

East of the Velia, between the Esquiline, Palatine, and Caelian hills, is the area of the Colosseum (=Colosseo) where there was a small lake before the construction of the Colosseum. Nero incorporated the lake into his Domus Aurea complex (as a feature in the huge central courtyard). Vespasian, who folowed Nero after the "year of the four emperors" (68-69 AD) drained the lake by tunneling a sewer through the Velia to join up with the cloaca maxima in the Forum Romanum. After the water drained away, construction on the Colosseum began.

The Field of Mars (Campus Martius) was a large plain just north of the archaic city, surrounded by the Capitoline, Esquiline and Pincian hills to the east and by the Tiber on the other sides. The army would convene in the Campus Martius before war and military commanders were elected there, as no military activities were allowed with the sacred city limit, the Pomerium. It was also the sit of encamplents of returning victorious armies who were waiting for the formal "Triumph" ceremonies to their General. Dozens of temples were eventually built in the Campus Martius by victorious Generals as thank-offerings to their favorite gods and goddesses. Remains of four of these temples have been exposed in a small archeological park in the modern Piazza Argentina.

All of these areas were subject to seasonal flooding, and some archeologists say that the reason that Roman Temples were set on such high podiums was to keep them above the high water mark. The Temple of Portunus, still on its high podium in the Forum Boarium, was completely surrounded by water when the Tiber River rose above its banks during seasonal floods which continued to occur until the flood-control dikes were built along the River in the 1880s.

Development of the city (in a few lines)

It appears that the first settlement in the area was actually on the island (Tiber Island = Insula Tiberina = Isola Tiberina) in the Tiber River, which has been inhabited continuously since the Bronze Age (14th Century BC). Very early in the Roman Monarchical period, the Island became a medical quarantine area and, until today, the main activity on the Island is a hospital.

There are remains of a thatched-hut settlement (often identified as the Roma Quadrata of Romulus) on the Palatine Hill and of burials at the western end of the Forum Romanum that date from the middle of the 8th century BC -- corresponding to the traditional date of the foundation of Rome by Romulus in 753 BC. The Palatine soon became the habitation of rich patrician families and eventually the site of the imperial palaces.

At about the same time as the Romulan settlement on the Palatine, there were Latins living on the Aventine and Sabines living on the Quirinale. Remains of an archaic oak-grove sacred area also have been excavated on the Quirinale. (The name of the hill is thought to have ben derived from the Latin word "quercus", which means "oak tree", or perhaps the word for oak came from the name of the hill -- relationship established, but precednce unknown.)

There were two sacred areas on the two peaks of the Capitoline Hill ( = Campidoglio) from the earliest Roman times. These were the site of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the southern peak and the site of the open-air Arx (where the "augurs" studied bird movements to try to determine the will of the gods) on the northern peak. Eventually a temple of Juno Moneta ( = "the Protector") was build on the Arx. The Juno Moneta temple was used as a mint for Roman money, and the modern words "money", "monetary", "mint", etc. are all derived from the Latin word "moneta" in the name of the Juno Temple.

The saddle between the two peaks of the Capitoline Hill was called the asylum (from Greek "asulon" = "sanctuary"). In the Monarchical Period and early Republican Rome, prospective new settlers -- often outlaws from surrounding tribes, who were actively recruited -- were allowed to settle provisionally until the learned and accepted the rules of Roman civilization. After a trial period they were allowed out of the asylum and ito other parts of Rome.

The areas between the Quirinale Hill and the Viminale and between the Viminale and the Esquiline Hill (ie., north of the Forums) became the "Saburra" (perhaps from "sub urba" = "below the city") where most of Rome's plebian population initially settled. It quickly became an erea of low repute.

City walls were first built around the Palatine and gradually expanded as needed. See the map below. For a detailed description of Rome's walls go to http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Arc/5319/walls.htm.

mmdtkw -- verified September 2008


Capitoline Insula - Ancient Rome Live - History

Photo: Painting in the studio.

Returned to explore the southern end of the forum, looking at warehouses and The House of the Vestal Virgins whose occupants were entrusted to keep the sacred fire burning in Rome. A life-sized marble statue of each Head Vestal originally lined the courtyard that faces onto the forum. The name of one has been erased from the base. Some believe this refers to Claudia who converted to Christianity marking the decline of the pagan era. The Vestals took a vow of chastity and were considered married to the state, which appears to have became the model for Catholic nuns.

Nearby a temple honoured the gods of war and fertility. It seems the Romans responded to correlating opposites (i.e. also considering the oppositional role the temple to Vejovis might have served to The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus.)

The journey up the Via Sacra (Sacred Way) ends with the Arch of Titus, constructed in the first century and celebrating the destruction of Jerusalem. The Arch of Septimius stands diagonally opposite at the north-eastern end of the forum, next to the Umbilicus Urbis Romae and the Milliarium Aureum. One wonders whether a relationship between the two was conceived, ala Janus, with one marking the coming and the other the going.

My paintings have centred on the highway and the high-rise in which the transitory and the monumental are represented. The victory arch combines both in relation to a fleeting event in history.

During the Middle Ages the Arch of Titus was incorporated into a wall. It was in serious disrepair before the structures around it were removed and it was restored in 1817.

Photo: The Arch of Titus today and as depicted by Canaletto in 1744.

A road from the Arch of Titus also ascends the Palatine where in contrast to the cluttered forum, palaces and ruins are set in cultivated gardens and amongst the wilder Roman Pines, reminding one of paintings by Sydney Long and Rick Amor. This view reminded me of Edward Hopper.

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Watch the video: The long history and legacy of the Capitoline Hill - Ancient Rome Live (December 2021).