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New York

New York

The Dutch first settled along the Hudson River in 1624; two years later they established the colony of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island. In 1664, the English took control of the area and renamed it New York. One of the original 13 colonies, New York played a crucial political and strategic role during the American Revolution. Between 1892 and 1954, millions of immigrants arrived in New York Harbor and passed through Ellis Island on their journey to becoming U.S citizens. It is estimated that up to 40 percent of Americans can trace at least one ancestor to that port of entry. New York City, the largest city in the state, is home to the New York Stock Exchange and is a major international economic center.

Date of Statehood: July 26, 1788

Capital: Albany

Population: 19,378,102 (2010)

Size: 54,555 square miles

Nickname(s): Empire State

Motto: Excelsior (“Ever Upward”)

Tree: Sugar Maple

Flower: Rose

Bird: Bluebird

Interesting Facts

  • New York City was the first capital of the United States after the Constitution was ratified in 1788. On April 30, 1789, George Washington was inaugurated as the nation’s first president at Federal Hall, located on Wall Street.
  • The popular tabloid New York Post was originally established in 1801 as a Federalist newspaper called the New York Evening Post by Alexander Hamilton, an author of the Federalist papers and the nation’s first secretary of the treasury.
  • The Statue of Liberty was a gift from the people of France in honor of the United States’ enduring dedication to freedom and democracy and of the alliance held between the two countries during the American Revolution. Erected in 1886 on Bedloe’s Island (later renamed Liberty Island) in New York Harbor, the statue stood as a welcoming symbol to the 14 million immigrants who entered the United States through New York until 1924.
  • After the towns of Woodstock and Wallkill refused permission to host what ultimately became the country’s most renowned musical festival, a dairy farmer in nearby Bethel agreed to provide access to his land for “Three Days of Peace and Music.” With musical acts kicking off on August 15, 1969, the Woodstock Music Festival attracted more than 400,000 attendees—most of whom were admitted for free since the organizers of the event were unprepared to control access for such a large crowd.
  • Adirondack Park in northeastern New York contains roughly 6 million acres of protected land. Comprised of both public and private areas, the park is larger than Yellowstone, Glacier, Everglades and Grand Canyon National Parks combined.
  • New York City contains roughly 660 miles of subway track connecting 468 subway stations—the lowest of which is located 180 feet below street level. In 2011, more than 1.6 billion people rode the subway.
  • Comprised of three waterfalls on United States and Canadian territory, Niagara Falls attracts 12 million visitors each year. The American Falls, in New York, are nearly 180 feet high and 1,100 feet long. The Niagara River produces enough hydroelectric power to supply more than a quarter of all power used in the state of New York and Ontario.
  • The National Baseball Hall of Fame is located in Cooperstown, New York.


Wall Street History in Photos

New York

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New York, constituent state of the United States of America, one of the 13 original colonies and states. New York is bounded to the west and north by Lake Erie, the Canadian province of Ontario, Lake Ontario, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the east by the New England states of Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean and New Jersey and to the south by Pennsylvania. The capital is Albany.

Until the 1960s New York was the country’s leading state in nearly all population, cultural, and economic indexes. Its displacement by California beginning in the middle of that decade was caused by the enormous growth rate that has persisted on the West Coast rather than by a large decline in New York itself. Texas overtook New York as the second most populous state in 2000. Still, New York remains one of the most populous states in the country, and its gross economic product exceeds those of all but a handful of countries throughout the world.

New York is situated across a region of contrast—from the Atlantic shores of Long Island and the skyscrapers of Manhattan through the rivers, mountains, and lakes of upstate New York to the plains of the Great Lakes region. With canals, railroads, and highways, New York is a principal gateway to the west from the Middle Atlantic and New England states and a hub for travel to and from much of the country. The cities of the state—from New York City through Albany, Utica, and Syracuse to Rochester and Buffalo on the Great Lakes—and their suburbs are home to more than four-fifths of all New Yorkers.

Both the New England and the Southern colonies had a great deal more to do with the movement toward revolution and with stabilizing the new country during its early decades than did New York, but, once the state’s growth got under way, it attained a breakneck pace. The state—and New York City in particular—remains the centre of much of the country’s economy and finance, as well as of many formative impulses in American art and culture, and the influence and image of both are major elements in national political life. However, the overwhelming presence of New York City has tended to divide the state socially and politically, causing long-standing problems for both the city and the state. Area 54,555 square miles (141,297 square km). Population (2010) 19,378,102 (2019 est.) 19,453,561.

Although New York state is inextricably linked with New York City in many people’s minds, the state has a wide range of geographic and climatic conditions. During at least a part of the last Ice Age, most of New York was covered by glaciers the only exceptions were southern Long Island, Staten Island, and the far southwestern corner of the state.

New York - HISTORY

The origins of the Fire Department of New York City date back to 1648, but it wasn&rsquot until 1865 that the modern-day FDNY first was established with the creation of the Metropolitan Fire Department (M.F.D.). The first professional unit, Engine Company Number 1, went into service on July 31,1865, at four Centre Street in Manhattan. The first ladder trucks were pulled by two horses and carried wooden portable ladders in sizes up to 73 feet. The first reference to the nomenclature F-D-N-Y was made in 1870 after the Department became a municipally controlled organization. The reorganized Department changed leadership, titles of rank and even its name. All usage of M.F.D. was removed and the lettering on all apparatus was changed to the now-familiar F.D.N.Y.

Around the same time, origins of the Department&rsquos Emergency Medical Service began to take shape with horse-drawn ambulances dispatched by telegraph from Bellevue Hospital in Manhattan.

On January 1, 1898, the Greater City of New York was formed with the FDNY now overseeing all fire services in the newly formed boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island. A new charter accompanied the reorganization of the City. The Board of Fire Commissioners, in place since 1865, was replaced by a single Commissioner.

Famous People from New York

  • Susan B. Anthony (1820 - 1906) One of the leaders in the fight for women's right to vote lived in Rochester.
  • Bonnie Blair (1964 - ) The only American woman to Win a US-record five individual gold medals over three Olympic Games born in Cornwall.
  • Isaac Sidney "Sid" Caesar (September 8, 1922 - February 12, 2014) was an American comic actor and writer best known for the television series Your Show of Shows and Caesar's Hour, and as Coach Calhoun in Grease. He was also a saxophonist and author of several books, including two autobiographies. Caesar was the youngest of three sons born to Jewish immigrants living in Yonkers, New York. His father, Max, had emigrated from Poland his mother, Ida Raphael), from the Russian Empire. The surname "Caesar" was given to Max, as a child, by an immigration official at Ellis Island
  • Mariah Carey (1970 - ) Singer whose albums have sold millions from Huntington
  • Shirley Chisholm (1924 - ) The first black woman to be elected to Congress and the first African American to run for President on the Democratic ticket born in Brooklyn.
  • George M. Cohan was an actor and musical theatre performer. He was also the composer of several famous songs, including "Yankee Doodle Dandy" and "Give My Regards to Broadway."
  • Tom Cruise (1962 - ) Famous actor who has appeared in movies such as Top Gun, Rain Man and Mission Impossible born in Syracuse.
  • George Eastman (1854 - 1932) Founded the Eastman Kodak Company and invented the Kodak camera born in Waterville.
  • Julius (Dr. J) Erving (1950 - ) Famous basketball player who changed the way the game was played born in Roosevelt.
  • Millard Fillmore (1800 - 1874) Thirteenth President of the United States born in Summer Hill.
  • Henry Louis Gehrig, 1903-1941, nicknamed "The Iron Horse" was one of the most beloved Major League Baseball players. He played in 2,130 consecutive games, a record only recently broken by Cal Ripkin, Jr. He died of a rare disease called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which is now often referred to as "Lou Gehrig's disease."
  • George Gershwin (1898 - 1937) Composer from New York City that blended different musical styles famous for Rhapsody in Blue born in Brooklyn.
  • Mel Gibson (1956 - ) Famous actor that was born in Peekskill and moved to Australia as a boy famous for Lethal Weapon, Braveheart, and many others.
  • Grace Hopper Born Grace Brewster Murray in New York City, NY, Grace Hopper was educated at Vassar College and Yale University. She became an associate professor of mathematics at Vassar, and joined the Navy in 1942. She was assigned as a programmer on the Mark I, the first large-scale U.S. computer. She is credited with inventing the compiler, a program that translates instructions for a computer from English to a language the computer can understand. She helped develop COBOL (the Common Business-Oriented Language) for the UNIVAC, the first commercial electronic computer. By a special act of Congress she was promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral in 1983.
  • Michael Jordan (born February 17, 1963), also known by his initials, MJ, is an American former professional basketball player, entrepreneur, and majority owner and chairman of the Charlotte Bobcats. His biography on the National Basketball Association (NBA) website states, "By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time." Jordan was one of the most effectively marketed athletes of his generation and was considered instrumental in popularizing the NBA around the world in the 1980s and 1990s (1913 - 1970) - Considered one of the greatest football coaches in history, leading the Green Bay Packers to five NFL Championships and the first two Super Bowl titles born in Brooklyn.
  • Herman Melville (1819 - 1891) Author of Moby Dick born in New York City.
  • Julius Robert Oppenheimer (1904) born in New York City, Oppenheimer was the son of a wealthy textile importer. As a child, he became interested in mineral collecting, and through his letters to the New York Mineralogy Club, was invited to present a paper there when he was only twelve years old. In 1922, he enrolled in Harvard, and worked with an experimental physicist there. He continued his work in theoretical physics, and in 1942, he was asked to work on the US Atomic bomb program (eventually to be called the "Manhattan Project"). Oppenheimer recruited scientists to work with him at a facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Although the Manhattan Project was successful, Oppenheimer and other scientists who worked on the development of atomic weaponry became concerned about the devastation caused by the dropping of the bomb in Japan. The end of Oppenheimer's career was clouded by charges that he was disloyal to the US, and may have even passed atomic secrets to the Soviet Union, despite the fact that there is no hard evidence that he did so.
  • Norman Rockwell (1894 - 1978) Famous painter and illustrator born in New York City, may be one of America's best-known modern illustrators. He drew countless covers for the magazine Saturday Evening Post and his poster series The Four Freedoms was widely reproduced during the second World War.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882 - 1945) 32 nd President of the United States (1933-1945) born in Hyde Park.
  • Dr. Jonas Salk (1914 - 1995) is best known for developing a vaccine against polio, a disease that crippled or killed many adults and children prior to Salk's invention of the vaccine. (1809 - 1897) A banker and former treasurer of New York State, Mr. Spaulding's financial expertise aided him in drafting the national currency bank bill and originating the legal tender act, which created national paper currency born in Summer Hill.
  • Ralph Waite (June 22, 1928 - February 13, 2014) was an American actor. His best known role was as John Walton, Sr., on the 1970s CBS TV series The Waltons, which he also occasionally directed. He also portrayed the slave ship first mate Slater in the mini-series Roots. In addition, he appeared in many guest roles on numerous television series.Waite, the oldest of five children, was born in White Plains, New York, the son of Esther Mitchell and Ralph H. Waite, a construction engineer. Before becoming an actor, Waite served in the U.S. Marine Corps from 1946 to 1948, graduated from Bucknell University in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, and briefly was a social worker. He earned a master's degree from Yale University Divinity School and was a Presbyterian minister and religious editor at Harper & Row in New York City before deciding on an acting career
  • Denzel Washington (1954 - ) Actor that became well known on St. Elsewhere, and later in movies such as Cry Freedom and Remember the Titans born in Mount Vernon.

More Famous People of New York

Find more more New York famous people below. You may not even realize many of these famous people were born in New York or notable associated with New York, including actors, actresses, explorers, historical figures, inventors, musicians, novelists, professional athletes, important politicians, singers, sport stars and more.

New York History

Since 1932, New York History (ISSN 0146-437x) has served as the foremost scholarly journal on the state’s past. New York History, now under the leadership of the Cornell University Press, and working closely with staff from the New York State Museum, seeks to unify the diverse field of New York State history and meet the needs of a growing historical community that includes scholars, public historians, museum professionals, local government historians, and those seeking an in-depth look at the Empire State’s history.

New York History strives to promote and interpret the state’s history through the publication of historical research and case studies dealing with New York State, as well as, its relationship to national and international events. New York History, published twice a year, presents articles dealing with every aspect of New York State history, and reviews of books, exhibitions, and media projects with a New York focus. The Editorial Board actively solicits articles, essays, reports from the field and case studies that support this mission.

Office of State History

In partnership with Cornell University Press who will now publish New York History, Dr. Robert Chiles, Senior Lecturer in the History Department, University of Maryland, New York State Historian Devin Lander and New York State Museum Chief Curator of History Dr. Jennifer Lemak will serve as co-editors of the journal. Aaron Noble, Senior Historian and Curator, will serve as the Reviews Editor.

An Advisory Board of experts on New York State history has been assembled and will include the following scholars and curators for the 2019-2021 term:

Paula Baker
Ohio State University

Thomas D. Beal
SUNY Oneonta

Patricia Bonomi
New York University

Kelly Yacobucci Farquhar
Montgomery County Department of
History and Archives

Leslie E. Fishbein
Rutgers University-New Brunswick

James D. Folts.
New York State Archives

Michael Galban
Ganondagan State Historic Site

Timothy Gilfoyle
Loyola University Chicago

Susan Goodier
SUNY Oneonta

Georgette Grier-Key
Eastville Community Historical Society

Kenneth T. Jackson
Columbia University

Lisa Keller
Purchase College SUNY

Monica L. Mercado
Colgate University

D.L. Noorlander
SUNY Oneonta

Timothy J. Shannon
Gettysburg College

Robert W. Snyder
Rutgers University-Newark

Ivan D. Steen
University at Albany

Thomas S. Wermuth
Marist College

Oscar Williams
University at Albany

Michael J. McGandy (Ex-Officio)
Cornell University Press

All interested authors should consult the submission guidelines below:

New York History Article Submission Guidelines

Since 1932, New York History (ISSN 0146-437x) has served as the foremost scholarly journal on the state’s past. New York History, now under the leadership of the Cornell University Press, and working closely with staff from the New York State Museum, seeks to unify the diverse field of New York State history and meet the needs of a growing historical community that includes scholars, public historians, museum professionals, local government historians, and those seeking an in-depth look at the Empire State’s history.

New York History strives to promote and interpret the state’s history through the publication of historical research and case studies dealing with New York State, as well as its relationship to national and international events. New York History, published twice a year, presents articles dealing with every aspect of New York State history, and reviews of books, exhibitions, and media projects with a New York focus. The Editorial Board actively solicits articles, essays, reports from the field and case studies that support this mission.

Submitted articles should address, in an original fashion, some aspect of New York State history. Articles that deal with the history of other areas or with general American history must have a direct bearing on New York State history. It is assumed that the article will have some new, previously unexploited material to offer or will present new insights or new interpretations. Suggested length is 20-30 double spaced pages (or between 6,000 and 9,000 words), including footnotes. All submitted articles must include a 100-word abstract summarizing the article and providing keywords (no more than 10). Authors must submit articles electronically, with all text in Word and all tables, figures, and images in formats supported by Microsoft Windows. Provision of images in proper resolution (no less than 300 dpi at 5” x 7”), securing requisite permissions, and the payment of any fees associated with images for articles are all the responsibility of the author. New York History employs, with some modification, footnote forms suggested in the Chicago Manual of Style.

Author's Checklist
Before submitting, please download the Author’s Checklist located here to review our submission standards:

New York

Native Americans came to the area now called New York about 5,000 years ago. Thousands of years later, their descendants included Native American tribes such as the Mohawk, Cayuga, Oneida, and Seneca.

In 1624 the Dutch established a colony on what’s now Manhattan Island called New Amsterdam. It was renamed New York once the British took control of the area in 1664.

But after the American Revolution in 1776, New York became a U.S. colony, then a state in 1788. One year later, George Washington was sworn in as the United States’ first president in New York City, then the country’s capital. (It would move to Washington, D.C., the next year, in 1790.)


New York was named after the British Duke of York. Many experts believe it’s nicknamed the Empire State because George Washington called New York “the seat of the Empire.”

Right: New York state icons


New York is bordered by Canada and Lake Ontario in the north Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and the Atlantic Ocean in the south Lake Erie in the west and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont in the east.

The St. Lawrence-Champlain Lowland runs along the edge of the Adirondack Mountains and the Canadian border. In this hilly area, you can see Lake Champlain and Thousand Islands, a collection of small islands that sit between New York and Canada.

The Adirondack Upland, known for the Appalachian Mountains and its forests, waterfalls, and lakes includes New York’s highest peak, Mount Marcy. The Hudson-Mohawk Lowland contains much of the Hudson and Mohawk River valleys, and the Allegheny Plateau, stretching from Lake Erie along the border with Pennsylvania, includes the 11 Finger Lakes and the forested Catskill Mountains.

The Erie-Ontario Lowland is a plain dotted with oval-shaped mounds called drumlins. It reaches the shores of two Great Lakes: Erie and Ontario. Stretching out toward the ocean is the Atlantic Coastal Plain. It includes the sandy beaches and bays of Staten Island and Long Island.


New York is home to large mammals such as black bears, bobcats, and moose, plus smaller mammals like weasels, raccoons, and skunks. Golden eagles, peregrine falcons, and wild turkeys are common birds, as well as blue jays, cardinals, and woodpeckers. Reptiles include snapping turtles, diamondback terrapins, and queen snakes. Also be on the lookout for amphibians such as the eastern hellbender, a 30-inch-long salamander.

You’re likely to see oaks, pines, and sugar maples, the state tree. Flowers like azaleas, rhododendrons, and New England asters are all common.


New York is known for supplying construction materials such as limestone, salt, sand, and gravel. It’s also one of the top states for garnets, though they’re used for industrial purposes instead of jewelry. And New York is the only state that mines wollastonite, used for manufacturing ceramics and paints.


—Hear the roar of 750,000 gallons of water crashing down every second over Niagara Falls, which borders New York and Canada. You can even sail close enough to get soaked on a boat tour.

—New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with around 8.5 million residents. You can look down from the 86th floor of the Empire State Building, climb 377 steps to the Statue of Liberty’s crown, and tour Ellis Island, where over 12 million immigrants entered the United States between 1892 and 1924.

—Famous New York residents include U.S. presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and John F. Kennedy.

—New York is the only state that borders both the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes.

8. The “Angel Of Death”

Richard Angelo should have been on of the good ones. An EMT at Good Samaritan Hospital in Long Island, NY, Angelo had been an Eagle Scout and a volunteer fireman. His background profile was of a person who cared about serving others. This was not the case.

Feeling unappreciated in his job as a nurse, Angelo began inducing emergencies in the patients at Good Samaritan by injecting them with paralytic agents Pavulon and Anectine because he wanted to be the one that would save them. Initially this strategy worked and Angelo received the praise he sought from his co-workers and the patients he had “saved.”

However, for 25 of the 37 patients he did this with it did not work and Angelo was unable to save them in time. What’s more, people began to notice a pattern of emergencies during Angelo’s shift which caused them to become suspicious. This all came to a head when one patient, seeing that Angelo was injecting him with something, managed to hit their ‘call’ button notifying the nursing staff to his plight. The contents Angelo was attempting to administer were analyzed and he was found out. Later, police discovered these same paralyzing agents in Angelo’s home.

When interviewed by authorities regarding the murders, Angelo claimed he did it because he suffered, essentially, from low self-esteem.

“I wanted to create a situation where I would cause the patient to have some respiratory distress or some problem, and through my intervention or suggested intervention or whatever, come out looking like I knew what I was doing. I had no confidence in myself. I felt very inadequate.”

Angelo was sentenced to 61 years in prison.

Road Trip to Long Island: All Episodes Now Available

Postcard image courtesy Smithtown Library

We’ve now reached the end of our Road Trip To Long Island mini-series but not the end of Long Island history on our podcast. Let’s just say, we were on something of a test drive to gauge listeners’ interest in the Bowery Boys Podcast expanding beyond the borders of the city. We are now anticipating [&hellip]

New York - HISTORY

History of Seneca, New York
SARACUSE, N. Y., 1893


IN 1789 the Legislature passed an act creating Ontario county, and authorized the Court of Sessions to divide its territory into districts. This was done, and although we have no record of the event, it is well kpown that the district of Seneca included a large area of territory much larger than did the original town of Seneca, organized in 1793. The town organized in 1793 included township No. 9 and the south half of township No. 10, and also so much of the " gore" as was east of the same and between the old and new pre-emption lines.

Within the bounds of the original town of Seneca there took place many of the most interesting events of early history in Western New York, for within these limits was the home village and favorite hunting and fishing grounds of one branch of the famed Senecas of the Iroquois. Old "Kanadesaga," their village, was within the town, and here dwelt their famous king. Also within the same limits was the historic burial mound of the Senecas, and around all these there still clings a wealth of memories dear to the student of archeology. Previous to their settlement at this place, the Senecas had been located at the White Springs and at Burrell or Slate Rock Creek, both of which are in the limits of the old town of Seneca. In June, 1750, when Bishop Cammerhoff and Rev. David Zeisberger, the Moravian missionaries, were on a journey to the western town of the Senecas, they passed through this region and along the site of the White Springs, where they were informed a former village of the Senecas had been, and which they called "Ganechstage," and on which there was at this time but few huts This settlement had been broken up in 1732 by a plague of the small pox, with which an Indian had become infected at Albany. Taking a wrong path, the missionaries went southwesterly, passing "through a beautiful, fruitful valley," and came to the site of" New Ganechstage." On their return they again came this way, and at "New Ganechsatage" they were hospitably entertained by "Gajinquechto" and his wife. This is but a dialectical variation of" Sayenqueraghta," and is the same person who in later years was the "smoke bearer" at Kanadesaga. The "sachern's" wife pointed out the way to them and they journeyed on, passing old "Ganechsatage," reaching a spring. The location of New Ganechstage was in the present town of Seneca, on the farm of J. Wilson and Newton A. Read, lot 32. Other village sites were on the Rippey farm, lot 36 farm of W. P. Rupert, lot 36 Haslett farm lot 37. It was from here that they were gathered and formed the "new settlement village," as has been stated in another chapter.

However, in 1872 Seneca was deprived of the greater and more interesting part of its history, for in the year named the town of Geneva was created and included within its boundaries nearly all the old interesting localities formerly of Seneca. The town so set off comprised all that part of the old town which was in the gore, and also the eastern tier of lots in townships 9 and ro. Therefore, the subject of Ihis chapter must be the town of Seneca as constituted after the separate organization of Geneva as an independent civil division of Ontario county and as all that remains to be told in this connection relates to its early settlement and organization, we may properly begin with the advent of the pioneers into the region, referring only incidentally to the settlements at Kanadesaga and Geneva. As the places last mentioned were for several years previous to the erection of this county the center of operations in the entire western country, settlement naturally began there, but after the survey of the Phelps and Gorham purchase, pioneers at once sought to purchase the towns, or portions of them, and settlement thus followed in due time.

Township number 10 of range i, of which a part is included within Seneca, was purchased by a party of twenty New Englanders, and under this proprietorship the settlement of the town was begun. One of the purchasers was Captain Joshua Whitney, who first examined and explored the lands of the purchase in 1789, and became a permanent settler therein in 1790. He was a man of influence, large means, and much experience had been a soldier during the Revolution, and had gained his title in that service. He had at first 1,052 acres in the town, which amount he doubled later on. We may also state that the Whitney family was represented by other early settlers in the town, all of whom constituted a fair contingent of the number entitled to be called pioneers.

Among the other early settlers and pioneers of Seneca, whose names as heads of families or single men seeking homes in the new country are equally worthy of mention, were Anson Dodge, Abraham Burkholder, Peter Van Gelder, Zora Densmore, John Berry, George Ackley or Eckley, Ammi Whitney, Robert Carson, Leonard Isenhour (built grist and saw mills as early as 1800), Peter Wyn coop, William Esty, Thomas Taliman and others, the date of whose settlement was prior to 1800, and that of many of them before 1795. There were also the families named Clemons, Parker, Harris, Fiero, Charlton, Childs, Torrence, Rogers, McPherson, Culver, Latta, Darrow, and the McCauleys, Hallidays, Duttons, Onderdonks, the Ringers (John and Jacob) and others now forgotten, whose names are equally worthy of mention as early settlers in this rich agricultural region.

In the same manner we may also recall the names of other pioneers, among whom were Thomas Ottley, Nathan Whitney, Eben Burt, Isaac Amsden, Peter Gray, Matthew Rippey, David McMaster, Abram Post, Israel Webster, Simeon Amsden, Joel Whitney, Hugh Fulton and Gameliel Brockway, all of whom with others named and yet to be named, were located in the town of Seneca as early as the year 1800. There were also William Rippey, Joseph Fulton, Edward Rice, Philip Gregory, John Dixon, Seba Squier, Jacob Reed, Thomas Densmore, Solomon Gates, Colonel Wilder, David Barron, all pioneers, nearly all of whom had families, and all of whom contributed to the prominent position Seneca early occupied among the towns of the county.

The Stanley family, of whom Seth Stanley was the pioneer head, settled in the town in 1796, and the locality afterwards became known as Stanley's Corners, while the still later station and railroad junction are known as "Stanley's." On the old Geneva and Rushville turnpike at an early day settled pioneers Peter Diedrich, George Simpson, Will jam Fiero and George Rippey and elsewhere in the town were Salma Stanley, Thomas McCauley, Matthew Rippey, Peter Blackmore, Mr. Harford, John McCullough, Captain Wm. McPherson, Whitney Squier, Jonathan Reed, the Phillips family, Squire Parks, James Rice, James Means, Leonard and William Smith, Chauncey Barden, Alfred Squier, Aaron Black, the Careys, John Wood, John Rippey, Robert Parks, Timothy Miner, James Black, Aden Squier, Edward Burrall, Samuel Wheadon and others, the dates and precise location of whose settlement cannot now be accurately determined.

In this connection also we may name among the early settlers John Hooper, Foster Sinclair, the Dorman family, Adam Turnbull, Richard Bell, Wm. Foster, William Brown, John Scoon, Aaron Black, Mr. Stockoe, Jonathan Phillips, George Conrad, Thomas Vartie, Edward Hall (the pioneer for whom Hall's Corners was named), Sherman Lee, Wm. Wilson, the Cooleys, the Robinsons and Robsons, James Beattie, George Crozier, the Straughtons and the Wilsons, Rufus Smith, Robert Moody, Valentine Perkins, David Miller, Mr. Clark, the prominent Barden family, Daniel Sutherland, Sylvester Smith, Levi Gland, John Thompson and others.

From the large number of names of early settlers above mentioned it will be seen that the settlement of this town must have been very rapid, and when we consider that none of those named were from the part of the town recently set off to Geneva, the conclusion must be natural and correct that Seneca was settled and improved as early as any district or town in the county. In i8oo the population of the whole county was only 15,218, yet the assertion is made that of the number the then town of Seneca had at least 2,000. In fact, until Geneva was set off, Seneca was by far the largest town in the county. In i8io the population was 3,431 in 1830 it was 6,161 in 1840 if was 7,073 in 1850 it was 8,505 in 1860 it was 8,448 in 1870 it was 9,188 and in 1880, by reason of the erection of Geneva, the local population was only 2,877 in 1890 it was 2,690.

In 1793 the population of the town was deemed sufficiently great to warrant its complete organization by the election of officers, consequently a town meeting was held at "the house of Joshua Fairbanks, Innkeeper," on the first Tuesday in April, 1793. At this time the first town officers were elected, as follows: Supervisor, Ezra Patterson town clerk, Thomas Sisson assessors, Oliver Whitmore, James Rice, Phineas Pierce commissioners of highways, Patrick Burnet, Samuel Wheadon, Peter Bartle, jr. collector, Sanford Williams overseers of the poor, Jonathan Oaks, David Smith constables, Charles Harris, Stephen Sisson, Whelds Whitmore overseers of highways, Nathan Whitney, Oliver Humphrey, Jerome Loomis, Jeremiah Butler, Benj. Tuttle, Wm. Smith, jr., David Benton, Benjamin Dixon fence viewers, Amos Jenks, John Reed, Joseph Kilbourn, Seba Squiers, Caleb Culver poundmasters, Peter Bartle, jr., David Smith sealer of weights and measures, Peter Bartle, sr. surveyor of lumber, Jeremiah Butler.

Among the first proceedings of the town authorities were those relating to the laying out of highways, among them, and one of the very first, being one of historical importance, inasmuch as it was evidently laid out on the old Indian trail which led southeast from the foot of Seneca street, and afterwards in a westerly direction until it reached the west line of the town. The western part of this was where the turnpike from the old pre emption road was laid out later on.

The officers elected in 1793 and mentioned above were chosen, the reader will of course understand, from the town of Seneca, as at that time constituted, therefore including all that is now the town of Geneva. The center of population at that time, and for many years afterward, was at Geneva, and here all trade and barter was carried on therefore it was usual that the town meetings should be held at the village, the first at Joshua Fairbanks' "Inn " the second at "the house of Elark Jennings, Inn Keeper," the third at the house of Ezra Patterson the fourth at Benjamin Tuttle's house the fifth at the house of Epenetus Hart, adjoining Powell's Hotel the sixth and seventh at Powell's Hotel, and so on to the end of the list. In this connection it is interesting to note the succession of supervisors of the old town of Seneca from its organization to the present time, which succession is as follows,

Ezra Patterson. 1793 Ambrose Hull, 1794-95 Timothy Allen, 1796 Ezra Patterson, 1797-98 Samuel Colt, 1799 Ezra Patterson, 1800-1801 Samuel Wheadon, jr., 1802 Ezra Patterson, 1803-04 Septimus Evans, 1805-14 John M. Cullough, 1815 Septimus Evans, 1816-17 Nathan Reed, 1818-28. The records of town officers between the years 1828 and 1838 cannot be found. Abraham A. Post, 1838-42 Philo Bronson, 1843 Abraham A. Post, 1844-47 John L. Dox, 1848-49 Chas. S. Brother, 1850-51 Lucius Warner, 1852-54 James M. Soverhill, 1855-56 John Whitwell, 1857-58 Perez H. Field, 1859-60 Joseph Hutchinson, 1861-62 George W. Nicholas, 1863-68 Samuel Southworth, 1869-70 John Post, 1871-72 Seth Stanley, 1873 Edward S. Dixon, 1874 Seth Stanley, 1875 Robert Moody, 1876-81 Levi A. Page, 1882-89 H. Joel Rice, 1890-93.

Present Town Officers- H. Joel Rice, supervisor Mathew D. Lawrence, town clerk Harmon W. Onderdonk, Orson S. Robinson, W. H. Whitney, assessors E. S. Dixon, Eben E. Thatcher, Wm. H. Barden, W. D. Robinson, justices of the peace Albert M. Knapp, John B. Esty, Hamilton Rippey, excise commissioners John H. Carr, Frank L. Parshail, C. E. Onderdonk, commissioners of highways overseer of the poor, James Woods.

Returing again briefly to the period of old times, we find the pioneers of Seneca engaged in the laudable enterprise of raising a fund for the purpose of building a bridge across Flint Creek at Castleton, to form a part of the main thoroughfare from the town to the county seat. The subscribers to this fund, with the amount of their respective subscriptions, in pounds, were as follows: Sanford Williams, 8 Oliver Whitmore, 3 Nathan Whitney, 6 Solomon Gates, 3 Hugh Maxwell, 2 Samuel Warner, 3 Warner Crittenden, 3 Ebenezer Bunt, 3 Solomon Warner, 3 Joel Whitney, 3 Oliver Whitmore, sen., i Luke Whitmore, 1 Elijah Wilder, 3

Villages and Hamlets.- In this department of this work it is not proposed to make any extended reference to the Indian occupation of any of the towns of the county, nevertheless, in this connection it is not inappropriate to allude to the old Seneca villages which formerly existed in this town, in the north part thereof, one of them on lot 56, and the other on lot 58 but where they were first located and inhabited by the Senecas, and the precise date of their disappearance we know not of.

The present villages and hamlets of Seneca are five in number, four of them being on the line of the commonly called Northern Central railroad, while the fifth is in the eastern part of the town, and is accessible only by team or foot travel.

Seneca Castle, the largest of the villages, and sometimes known as Castleton, is situated in the northwest part of the town, on Flint Creek, also on the railroad extending from Stanley to Sodus Bay. The original name of the village was Castleton, and the application of the name Seneca Castle was an afterthought. As a trading center this place has some prominence, but during the last half century it can hardly be said to have increased or lessened in business interests or population. The village has two church societies, each of which has a substantial church home. Of these we may make a brief record.

The Presbyterian Church of Seneca Castle was a branch or off-shoot of the mother church at Geneva, the latter having been organized in 1798, and in connection therewith occasional services were conducted in this western part of the town, altthough it was not until 1828 that the Seneca Castle was fully organized. The early services here were held chiefly by Revs. Jedediah Chapman and Henry Axtell, the former the first, and the latter the second pastor of the church at Geneva. The Castleton (such was the name then) Church was organized February 5, 1828, with nineteen original members "inhabitants of the village of Castleton and its vicinity." On the 4th of March the trustees were chosen, and steps were at once taken to raise means with which to erect a church home. This was quickly accomplished and the house was dedicated during the latter part of July, 1829.

The pastors, in succession, of this church have been as follows: Stephen Porter, Oren Catlin, Stephen Porter (second pastorate), George C. Hyde, R. Russell (supply), B. B. Gray, Alex. Douglass (supply), A. H. Parmelee, H. H. Kellogg, James S. Moore, and Howard Cornell, the latter being the present pastor, whose service as such began in June, 1893. The church has about eighty members, and a Sunday school with about ninety pupils.

The Castleton Methodist Episcopal Chapel was the outgrowth of a series of revival meetings held by the Presbyterians of this locality during the years 1830-31. The M. E. Class and church was organized soon after this time, and in 1842 the society erected a substantial brick edifice in the village. Its membership is about eighty, and the Sundayschool has about one hundred members. The present pastor is Rev. S. F. Beardslee.

Flint Creek is a small hamlet of about twenty dwelling-houses, one store, a post-office, a combined cider mill and wood-working factory, the school of district No. 2, and a M. E. Church. The village is on the stream from which it is named, and is about midway between Seneca Castle and Stanley. A grist and saw-mill were in operation many years a few rods south of the village proper.

The M. E. Church at Flint Creek, one of three societies of this denomination in this town, is of comparatively recent origin, and is supplied in its pastoral relation from Hopewell. The present pastor in charge is Rev. Cordello Herrick.

Stanley, formerly Stanley's Corners, is second in size and greatest in business importance among the hamlets of Seneca. The village is situated near the center of School District No. 1. Here also the Northern Central railroad divides, one branch leading to the county seat and the other to Sodus Bay. During the year 1892 the long hoped for Middlesex Valley road was completed and put in operation between Stanley and Naples and during 1893 the work of construction on the same road between Stanley and Geneva is expected to be prosecuted.

Although of considerable importance among the hamlets of Seneca, Stanley is only a small place, having two good stores (Hill & Coon, and James A. Pulver), a hotel, a grain elevator, a good district school, and two churches.

St. Theresa's Roman Catholic parish was organized in 1875, and the church edifice was built in 1876. This parish is a joint station with Rushville, and includes about ninety, families. The priests in charge have been Fathers James A. Connelly, Joseph Hendrick, Joseph J. Magin, D. W. Kavanaugh, J. H. Butler, James F. Dougherty, and John P. Hopkins.

The Methodist Episcopal Church and society of Stanley are also of quite recent organization. The church and class work began many years ago, and the organization duly followed. There are now about thirty-five members, and preparations are being made for the erection of a substantial church home in the village. The services are now conducted by Rev. 0. D. Davis, as supply, he being pastor of the church at Gorham village.

Hall's Corners is a small though busy hamlet in the south part of the town, .and being in the center of a large fruit and grain region, becomes a place of much importance during the harvest and shipping season. The village proper is about forty rods from the station. The merchants are William C. Mead (also postmaster) and George 0. Rippey & Son.

Seneca.- About a mile and one-half northeast of Hail's Corners is a little settlement and post office called Seneca. It has no industries of any importance, except the nursery of W. P. Rupert, yet around the old Presbyterian church at Seneca has been built up a quiet little settlement.

This church was organized June 29, 1807, by a devoted little band of Christians, by whom it was resolved "That we form ourselves into a church, to be denominated the Associate Reformed Church of the Town of Seneca." In July following the work of organization was completed, and at the first communion service forty-five members were on the church roll. After much work the little society succeeded in raising a fund and erecting a church edifice, a plain though neat frame structure, which was used about twenty- five years, and then, in 1838 and '39, was superseded by a larger and more pretentious building, which the society still occupies. This edifice was enlarged and improved in 1862, and again in 1868.

In 1859 this church changed its ecclesiastical connection and became essentially Presbyterian in doctrine and teaching. Its present membership reaches the remarkable number of 350 persons, and within the bounds of the congregation there are maintained four Sunday-schools. The succession of pastors and supplies of this church has been as follows: James Mears, Andrew Wilson (supplies), Thomas White (first pastor), William Nesbit, John D. Gibson, Samuel Topping, George Patton, A. B. Temple. The latter, Mr. Temple, became pastor in March, 1873, and has ever since continued in that relation, a period of more than twenty years.

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