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Evans, Oliver - History

Evans, Oliver - History

Evans, Oliver (1755-1819) Inventor: Oliver Evans was born in Newport, Delaware, and was apprenticed to a wheelwright as a child. Before he reached adulthood, he became intrigued by the idea of constructing a land vehicle than could be propelled without animal power. When he was twenty-two, he invented a machine to make card-teeth. Two years later, he went into business with his brothers, who were millers. Soon he invented the elevator, the conveyer, the drill, the hopper-boy and the descender. These inventions revolutionized the way in which a water-powered flour mill could be constructed. In 1786-87, Evans received the exclusive right, from the Maryland and Pennsylvania Legislatures, to apply his inventions to flour mills. Maryland also gave him similar rights to use his inventions on the construction of a steam carriage. He obtained a patent on his steam engine, which was different from the steam engines in use at the time. Evan's steam engine was based on the principle of high pressure. In 1803-04, the Board of Health of Philadelphia ordered Evans to construct a steam-dredging machine, the first to he used in America. Evans called the machine, "Orukter Amphibolos"; and it propelled itself a mile and a half. This is believed to be the first time steam-engine technology was applied to land vehicles. In 1805, he published "The Young Engineer's Guide." Evans even predicted that steam-propelled carriages would be set up on railways of wood or iron, and suggested the construction of a railroad between New York and Philadelphia. His limited means prevented him from following through with his mechanical experiments. Evans died on April 21, 1819, in New York City.


Who invented refrigerator?

It was in 18 th century that the process of invention of refrigerator started. In 1748 William Cullen of University of Glasgow developed a process for creating an artificial cooling medium. No one took interest in it for commercial or home consumption, it only attracted scientific attention. An American inventor Oliver Evans made the first design for the refrigerator in 1804 but until 1834 none was interested in the same. Jacob Perkins built the first refrigeration machine in 1834. In 1844, a physician John Gorrie built a working unit on the basis of Oliver’s designs. He constructed this unit to create cooling atmosphere for his patients who were suffering from yellow fever.

In 1876 Carl von Linden invented the improved method of liquefying gas and got it patented. This was a great help in the creation of practical refrigerator. Ammonia, sulphur dioxide and methyl chloride were utilized for the formation of this gas which led to many accidents. The need led to the development of Freon and was used in bulk till it was found that it was not environment friendly and affected the ozone layer.

The gas compounds have now changed to safer compounds which compress and heat up working to cool the inside air of the refrigerator. Without this adjustment the working of the refrigerator seems impossible. It has been a work of many great inventors that the present form of refrigerators has simplified the work.


Evans History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The surname Evans was first found in Herefordshire.

"Exceedingly numerous in North and South Wales and in the adjacent English counties of Shropshire and Monmouth. Thence it has spread, but in rapidly diminishing numbers to the midland counties and to the south - west of England. It is absent or singularly rare in the northern counties, a line from the Humber to the Mersey sharply defining its northward extension. Not one of the coast counties, from Norfolk round to the borders of Devon, is represented in my list." [3]

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Early History of the Evans family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Evans research. Another 126 words (9 lines of text) covering the years 1050, 1632, 1080, 1607, 1660, 1645, 1679, 1630, 1702, 1720, 1693, 1734, 1723, 1715, 1680, 1749 and are included under the topic Early Evans History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Evans Spelling Variations

There are relatively few surnames native to Wales, but they have an inordinately large number of spelling variations. Early variations of Welsh surnames can be explained by the fact that very few people in the early Middle Ages were literate. Priests and the few other literate people were responsible for recording names in official documents. And because most people could not specific how to properly record their names it was up to the individual recorder of that time to determine how a spoken name should be recorded. Variations due to the imprecise or improper recording of a name continued later in history when names originally composed in the Brythonic Celtic, language of Wales, known by natives as Cymraeg, were transliterated into English. Welsh names that were documented in English often changed dramatically since the native language of Wales, which was highly inflected, did not copy well. Occasionally, however, spelling variations were carried out according to an individual's specific design: a branch loyalty within the family, a religious adherence, or even patriotic affiliations could be indicated by minor variations. The spelling variations of the name Evans have included Evans, Evan, Evance, Evands, Evanson, Evason, Evens, Evenson and many more.

Early Notables of the Evans family (pre 1700)

Prominent amongst the family during the late Middle Ages was Rhirid Flaith a descendant in the Evans line about 1080 Arise Evans (or Rhys or Rice Evans) (1607-1660), a Welsh prophet and fanatic Saint Philip Evans (1645-1679), Welsh priest, declared guilty of treason and executed, one of The Forty Martyrs of England and Wales George Evans, D.D. (1630?-1702).
Another 57 words (4 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Evans Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Evans family to Ireland

Some of the Evans family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 110 words (8 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Evans migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Evans Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Christo Evans, who arrived in Virginia in 1622 [4]
  • Laurance Evans, who landed in Virginia in 1622 [4]
  • Lawrence Evans, who arrived in Virginia in 1623 [4]
  • Marke Evans, who arrived in Virginia in 1623 [4]
  • Clement Evans, who landed in Virginia in 1623 [4]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Evans Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Jonathan Evans, who landed in Virginia in 1707 [4]
  • Jos Evans, who landed in Virginia in 1711 [4]
  • Lydia Evans, who landed in Pennsylvania in 1711 [4]
  • Philip Evans, who arrived in Virginia in 1714 [4]
  • Griffeth Evans, who arrived in Virginia in 1714 [4]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Evans Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • John May Evans, who arrived in America in 1801-1802 [4]
  • John D Evans, who arrived in Pennsylvania in 1802 [4]
  • John J Evans, who landed in Pennsylvania in 1802 [4]
  • Ferdinand G Evans, who arrived in Pennsylvania in 1806 [4]
  • Hugh W Evans, who arrived in Maryland in 1811 [4]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Evans migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Evans Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Griffith Evans, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • John Jwoihfne Evans, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • Joseph Evans, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1749-1752
  • William Evans, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • Joseph Evans, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Evans Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • John Evans, who arrived in Canada in 1823
  • Moses Evans, who landed in Canada in 1830
  • Charlotte Evans, who landed in Canada in 1832
  • Alicia Evans, aged 28, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Sea Horse" in 1833
  • Henry Evans, aged 16, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Sea Horse" in 1833
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Evans Settlers in Canada in the 20th Century
  • M Evans, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1907
  • D Evans, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1907

Evans migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Evans Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • David Evans, English convict from Sussex, who was transported aboard the "Ann" on August 1809, settling in New South Wales, Australia[5]
  • Joseph Evans, English convict from Somerset, who was transported aboard the "Ann" on August 1809, settling in New South Wales, Australia[5]
  • Lewis Evans, British convict from Malta, who was transported aboard the "Ann" on August 1809, settling in New South Wales, Australia[5]
  • William Evans, English convict from Kent, who was transported aboard the "Ann" on August 1809, settling in New South Wales, Australia[5]
  • Miss Jane Evans, English convict who was convicted in Kent, England for life, transported aboard the "Canada" in March 1810, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[6]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Evans migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:


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Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC04331 Author/Creator: Fulton, Robert (1765-1815) Place Written: Washington, D.C. Type: Autograph letter signed Date: 30 January 1812 Pagination: 3 p. : address : docket 25.1 x 20.2 cm.

Requests that Evans try out his engine against Watt's and promises that if Evan's's is in any way superior, there will be a good deal of interest in the engine.

Robert Fulton was an engineer and entrepreneur, often credited with inventing the steamboat. While Fulton did not invent any of the individual components of the steamboat, he did combine the ideas of many other men to make the most successful steamboat. He also owned and operated a number of steamboats.
Oliver Evans invented the high pressure steam engine, which weighed far less than earlier steam engines.
James Watt, 1736-1819, was a Scottish engineer who invented significant improvements in the steam engine. He also coined the term horsepower, and the unit of measurement Watt is named after him.

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Oliver Evans

Oliver Evans (13 September 1755 – 15 April 1819) was an American inventor. Evans was born in Newport, Delaware to a family of Welsh settlers. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a wheelwright.

Evans' first invention was in 1777, when he designed a machine for making card teeth for carding wool. He went into business with his brothers and produced a number of improvements in the flour milling industry. His most important invention was an automated grist mill which operated continuously through the use of bulk material handling devices including bucket elevators, conveyor belts, and Archimedean screws. Evans described this invention in The Young Mill-wright and Millers' Guide. He patented this invention in a few states and, when the US patent system was established, in the federal patent system. Evans devoted a great deal of his time to patents, patent extensions, and enforcement of his patents.

In 1792 he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

He produced an improved high-pressure steam engine — his second most important invention. For some years he contemplated the idea of applying steam power to wagons. He was granted a patent for a steam-carriage design in 1789, but did not produce a working example of such a machine until over a decade later. (See below on his Oruktor Amphibolos). Part of his difficulties was a failure to get financial backing. After lack of support in his native land, in 1794 he sent copies of some his designs to Great Britain in an attempt to interest investors there.

As Evans designed a refrigeration machine which ran on vapor in 1805, he is often called the inventor of the refrigerator, although he never built one. (His design was modified by Jacob Perkins, who obtained the first patent for a refrigerating machine in 1834).

The Oruktor Amphibolos

The device for which Oliver Evans is best-known today is his Oruktor Amphibolos, or "Amphibious Digger", built on commission from the Philadelphia Board of Health. The Board was concerned with the problem of dredging and cleaning the city's dockyards, and in 1805 Evans convinced them to contract with him for a steam-powered dredge.

No technical drawings of the device survive, and the only evidence for its design come from Oliver Evans' own descriptions, which are contradictory, and most likely exaggerated. He describes the vehicle as a 30-foot (9.1 m) long 15 ton scow, powered by a 5 horse-power steam engine. For a demonstration of his long-held beliefs in the possibility of land steam demonstration, Evans mounted the hull on 4 wheels and may have connected the engine to them, to drive it through Philadelphia streets on the way to the river. The small size of the engine, the large size of the vehicle, and the lack of any contemporary evidence other than Evans' own writings for it make this seem unlikely. Evans claimed that his dredge was the first self-powered amphibious vehicle, as well as the first self-powered land vehicle in the United States (steam powered road vehicles had already been used earlier in France and Great Britain). The Oruktor Amphibolos was never a success as a dredge, and after a few years of sitting at the dock was sold for parts.

Subsequently, Evans wrote about the Oruktor in many publications, and each time the achievements became more impressive. He also 'corrected' the date of the machine from 1805 to 1804, possibly in a dispute about steamboat patents, and this inaccuracy has since been perpetuated by several commentators.

Oliver Evans wrote up proposals to mechanize road vehicles, but failed to get backing from investors, who saw the scheme as impractical. In 1812 he published a visionary description of the nation connected by a network of railroad lines with transportation by swift steam locomotives. It should be remembered that at the time the locomotive was little more than a crude curiosity, and no attempts to use it for long distance transport had yet been made see: History of rail transport.

Pittsburgh Steam Engine CompanyIn 1811, he founded the Pittsburgh Steam Engine Company, which in addition to engines made other heavy machinery and castings in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The location of the factory in the Mississippi watershed was important in the development of high pressure steam engines for the use in riverboats.

Death

In 1819, while in New York City, Oliver Evans was informed that his workshop in Philadelphia had burned to the ground. Evans suffered from a stroke at the news, and died soon after. He is buried in Trinity Cemetery, Broadway at 154th Street, New York City.

Tributes

In World War II, the United States liberty ship SS Oliver Evans was named in his honor.

Inventor. He is best known for inventing the "Oruktor Amphibolos", or "Amphibious Digger", which technologically was a foreunner of the modern automobile. It was a device commissioned by the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Board of Health that was a steam powered, wheeled amphibious dock cleaning scow.


Oliver Evans Builds the First Automated Flour Mill: Origins of the Integrated and Automated Factory

About 1785 American inventor Oliver Evans invented and promoted the process of continous process milling. He built the first automated flour mill on Red-Clay Creek near Newport, Delaware. Driven by water power, the mill operated continuously through the use of five bulk material handling devices including a hopper-boy, bucket elevators, conveyor belts, Archimedean screws, and descenders, reducing the number of men needed to operate the equipment from four to one. If properly managed Evans's mill also increased the amount of flour obtained from a given amount of grain. For these reasons Evans's system was eventually adopted throughout the United States, and gristmilling became and long remained one of the nation's most important industries. By 1870 it was the nation's leading industry by value of product.

Evans described and illustrated this invention in The Young Mill-Wright and Millers' Guide which he self-published in Philadelphia in 1795 in an edition of 2000 copies his book had 14 plates (1 folding). This work became very popular, undergoing 15 editions and revisions between 1795 and 1860, becoming the most significant text for the flour milling trade during this period. Its chapters on elements of mechanical and hydraulic engineering were useful in the application of the trade of millwrighting to many other industries besides grist milling. Millwrights who gained experience with production mechanisms installed and maintained textile machinery when it was introduced during the early 19th century.

Evans patented this invention in a few states and, when the US patent system was established, in the federal patent system (Third U.S. Patent).

Evans described his automatic flour mill as follows:

"These five machines . . . perform every necessary movement of the grain, and meal, from one part of the mill to another, and from one machine to another, through all the various operations, from the time the grain is emptied from the wagoner's bag . . . until completely manufactured into flour. . . without the aid of manual labor, excepting to set the different machines in motion."

Evans, The Young Mill-Wright & Miller's Guide. Foreward by Eugene S. Ferguson. Reprinted from the First Edition, 1795. Wallingford, PA: The Oliver Evans Press, 1990.


Refrigerator – Oliver Evans – inventor

Oliver Evans (13 September 1755 – 15 April 1819) was a United States inventor.

Evans was born in Newport, Delaware. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a wheelwright.

Evans’ first invention was in 1777, when he designed a machine for making card teeth for carding wool. He went into business with his brothers and produced a number of improvements in the textile industry. His most important invention was an automated grist mill which operated continuously through the use of bulk material handling devices including bucket elevators, conveyor belts, and Archimedean screws. Evans described this invention in The Young Mill-wright and Millers’ Guide. He patented this invention in a few states and, when the US patent system was established, in the federal patent system. Evans devoted a great deal of his time to patents, patent extensions, and enforcement of his patents.

In 1792 he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

He produced an improved high-pressure steam engine — his second most important invention. For some years he contemplated the idea of applying steam power to wagons. He was granted a patent for a steam-carriage design in 1789, but did not produce a working example of such a machine until over a decade later. (See below on his Oruktor Amphibolos). Part of his difficulties was a failure to get financial backing. After lack of support in his native land, in 1794 he sent copies of some his designs to Great Britain in an attempt to interest investors there.

As Evans designed a refrigeration machine which ran on vapor in 1805, he is often called the inventor of the refrigerator, although he never built one. (His design was modified by Jacob Perkins, who obtained the first patent for a refrigerating machine in 1834).

The Oruktor Amphibolos, as illustrated in „The Boston mechanic and journal of the useful arts and sciences” (July, 1834)The device for which Oliver Evans is best-known today is his Oruktor Amphibolos, or „Amphibious Digger”, built on commission from the Philadelphia Board of Health. The Board was concerned with the problem of dredging and cleaning the city’s dockyards, and in 1805 Evans convinced them to contract with him for a steam-powered dredge.

No drawings of the device survive, and the only evidence for its design come from Oliver Evans’ own descriptions, which are contradictory, and most likely exaggerated. He describes the vehicle as a 30-foot long 15 ton scow, powered by a 5 horse-power steam engine. For a demonstration of his long-held beliefs in the possibility of land steam demonstration, Evans mounted the hull on 4 wheels and may have connected the engine to them, to drive it through Philadelphia streets on the way to the river. The small size of the engine, the large size of the vehicle, and the lack of any contermporary evidence other than Evans’ own writings for it make this seem unlikely. Evans claimed that his dredge was the first self-powered amphibious vehicle, as well as the first self-powered land vehicle in the United States (steam powered road vehicles had already been used earlier in France and Great Britain). The Oruktor Amphibolos was never a success as a dredge, and after a few years of sitting at the dock was sold for parts.

Subsequently, Evans wrote about the Oruktor in many publications, and each time the achievements became more impressive. He also ‘corrected’ the date of the machine from 1805 to 1804, possibly in a dispute about steamboat patents, and this inaccuracy has since been perpetuated by several commentators.

Oliver Evans wrote up proposals to mechanize road vehicles, but failed to get backing from investors, who saw the scheme as impractical. In 1812 he published a visionary description of the nation connected by a network of railroad lines with transportation by swift steam locomotives. It should be remembered that at the time the locomotive was little more than a crude curiosity, and no attempts to use it for long distance transport had yet been made see: History of rail transport.

Death
In 1819, while in New York City, Oliver Evans was informed that his workshop in Philadelphia had burned to the ground. Evans suffered from a stroke at the news, and died soon after. He is buried in Trinity Cemetery, Broadway at 154th Street, New York City.

Tributes
In World War II the United States liberty ship SS Oliver Evans was named in his honor.


Evans, Oliver - History

Oliver Tractors trace their routes back to Hart-Parr and Oliver.

Charles Walter Hart and Charles H. Parr met at the University of Wisconsin, and while working on their Special Honours Thesis, presented in 1896, created their first engine.

After graduation, the Hart-Parr Company was organized on June 12, 1901 at Charles City, Iowa, and Hart-Parr Number 1 was completed in 1902. The "traction engine" was not an immediate success, but in 1906 W.H. Williams, Sales Manager, coined the term "tractor", and from then on Hart-Parr was known as the "Founders of the Tractor Industry".

Oliver Chilled Plow Company

James Oliver was born in Scotland on August 28, 1823, and in 1834, at age eleven, he immigrated to Garden Castle, New York with his family. The family moved west to Indiana, but his schooling ended in 1837 with the death of his father. He went to work for the owner of a pole-boat, but not liking the rowdy life of a river man, he quit to learn the iron molding trade.

James married in 1844 and worked at molding, coopering, and farming. In 1855, while in South Bend, Indiana on business, Oliver met a man who wanted to sell a quarter interest in his foundry for the inventory value ($88.96). Oliver happened to have $100 in his pocket at the time, and thus he became an owner in the cast iron plow business.

As a farmer, James knew that none of the cast iron plows he had used were satisfactory. James made the chilled plow a practical success it's very hard outer skin was able to scour in heavy soils.

On July 22, 1868 the South Bend Iron Works was incorporated to manufacture the Oliver Chilled Plow, and in 1870 the famous Oliver logo was designed.

James Oliver died in 1908 at the age of eighty-five, and Joseph D. Oliver became head of the company. Joseph had tremendous organization and marketing skills, and the company continued to thrive and expand, and it was Joseph who led the company into the amalgamation with Hart-Parr and others in 1929, to form the Oliver Farm Equipment Company.

By 1929 the Hart-Parr Tractor Company, the American Seeding Machine Company, and the Nichols and Shepard Company were producing machinery that was becoming obsolete, and they lacked the capital and expertise to continue further progress. So, on April 1, 1929, these three companies merged with the Oliver Chilled Plow Company to form the Oliver Farm Equipment Corporation. This full line manufacturer shortened its name a few years later to Oliver Corporation.

The Oliver Corporation continued to innovate, with diesel engines and, in the 1948 to 1954 period, a new series of Fleetline models.

On November 1, 1960 White Motor Corporation of Cleveland, Ohio, a truck manufacturer, acquired Oliver Corporation as a wholly-owned subsidiary. White also acquired Cockshutt Farm Equipment of Canada in February, 1962, and it was made a subsidiary of Oliver Corporation.

(In 1928 Cockshutt Canada had marketed tractors made by Hart-Parr, and from 1934 through the late 1940's had marketed tractors made by Oliver, only changing the paint colour red, and changing the name tags to Cockshutt).

In 1969 White Motor Corporation formed White Farm Equipment Company, and gradually began transitioning to the White name. The Oliver 2255, also known as the White 2255, was the last purely "Oliver" tractor. With the introduction of the White 4-150 Field Boss in 1974, the White name was used exclusively the Oliver name was no more. In 1985 the White Farm Equipment Company was placed in involuntary bankruptcy. Today the patents are the property of Agco-Allis.


What led to the development of the modern refrigerator?

There is not a lot of information about the development of the technology that led to the modern refrigerator but it is recorded that the earliest development of an artificial way of refrigeration can be traced down to the seventeen hundreds and to a Scottish professor named William Cullen. In 1755, Cullen invented a machine that evaporated liquids in a vacuum, this was the beginning of the evolution of refrigerators.


See Also

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