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Hittite Relief of Musicians

Hittite Relief of Musicians


Battle of Kadesh

The Battle of Kadesh or Battle of Qadesh took place between the forces of the New Kingdom of Egypt under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, just upstream of Lake Homs near the modern Lebanon–Syria border. [14]

20,000-53,000 men [5]
(half engaged)

Somewhere between 23,000–50,000 men

  • Somewhere between 15,000 [8] –40,000 infantry [9]
    (not engaged)
  • Somewhere between 2,500–10,500 chariots [9][10]
    • Somewhere between 9,000–11,100 men [11]

    The battle is generally dated to 1274 BC from the Egyptian chronology, [15] and is the earliest pitched battle in recorded history for which details of tactics and formations are known. It is believed to have been the largest chariot battle ever fought, involving between 5,000 and 6,000 chariots in total. [16] [17] [18]

    As a result of discovery of multiple Kadesh inscriptions and the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty, it is the best documented battle in all of ancient history. [19]


    Hittite

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    Hittite, member of an ancient Indo-European people who appeared in Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium bce by 1340 bce they had become one of the dominant powers of the Middle East.

    Probably originating from the area beyond the Black Sea, the Hittites first occupied central Anatolia, making their capital at Hattusa (modern Boğazköy). Early kings of the Hittite Old Kingdom, such as Hattusilis I (reigned c. 1650–c. 1620 bce ), consolidated and extended Hittite control over much of Anatolia and northern Syria. Hattusilis’ grandson Mursilis I raided down the Euphrates River to Babylon, putting an end (c. 1590 bce ) to the Amorite dynasty there. After the death of Mursilis, a dynastic power struggle ensued, with Telipinus finally gaining control about 1530 bce . In the noted Edict of Telipinus, long upheld by succeeding generations, he attempted to end lawlessness and to regulate the royal succession.

    After Telipinus historical records are scarce until the Hittite New Kingdom, or empire (c. 1400–c. 1200 bce ). Under Suppiluliumas I (c. 1380–c. 1346 bce ), the empire reached its height. Except for a successful campaign against Arzawa in southwestern Anatolia, Suppiluliumas’ military career was devoted to involved struggles with the kingdom of Mitanni to the southeast and to the establishment of a firm Hittite foothold in Syria.

    Under Muwatallis (c. 1320–c. 1294 bce ) a struggle for the domination of Syria with resurgent Egypt under Seti I and Ramses II led to one of the greatest battles of the ancient world, which took place at Kadesh on the Orontes in 1299 bce . Though Ramses claimed a great victory, the result was probably indecisive, and 16 years later, under Hattusilis III (c. 1275–c. 1250 bce ), a peace treaty, mutual defense pact, and dynastic marriage were concluded between the Hittites and the Egyptians.

    The fall of the Hittite empire (c. 1193 bce ) was sudden and may be attributed to large-scale migrations that included the Sea Peoples. While the heartland of the empire was inundated by Phrygians, some of the Cilician and Syrian dominions retained their Hittite identity for another five centuries, evolving politically into a multitude of small independent principalities and city-states, which were gradually incorporated by Assyria until by 710 bce the last vestiges of Neo-Hittite political independence had been obliterated.

    Hittite cuneiform tablets discovered at Boğazköy (in modern Turkey) have yielded important information about their political organization, social structure, economy, and religion. The Hittite king was not only the chief ruler, military leader, and supreme judge but also the earthly deputy of the storm god upon dying, he himself became a god. Hittite society was essentially feudal and agrarian, the common people being either freemen, “artisans,” or slaves. Anatolia was rich in metals, especially silver and iron. In the empire period the Hittites developed iron-working technology, helping to initiate the Iron Age.

    The religion of the Hittites is only incompletely known, though it can be characterized as a tolerant polytheism that included not only indigenous Anatolian deities but also Syrian and Hurrian divinities.

    The plastic art of pre-imperial Hittite culture is scarce from the Hittite empire, however, many examples have been found of stone sculptures in a powerful, though somewhat unrefined, style. The art of the Late Hittite states is markedly different, showing a composite of Hittite, Syrian, Assyrian, and, occasionally, Egyptian and Phoenician motifs and influences. See also Anatolia: The rise and fall of the Hittites.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.


    File:The İnandık vase, a Hittite four-handled large terracota vase with scenes in relief depicting a sacred wedding ceremony, mid 17th century, found in İnandıktepe, Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara (26414472886).jpg

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    Chariots: quicker, lighter, deadlier

    Advances in Hittite chariot design coincided with the rise of the Hittite Empire as a powerful player in the eastern Mediterranean. Able to mount rapid surprise attacks, chariots played a key role in King Suppiluliumas I’s conquests of Syria and the forging of Hittite regional supremacy in the 14th century B.C.

    One sign that the Hittites had returned as major players in the region was a letter from an Egyptian queen to Suppiluliumas I. The pharaoh had recently died (scholars believe it was most likely Tutankhamun, but it could have been his father, Akhenaten). She asked him to send one of his sons in marriage. Unfortunately for Hittite-Egyptian relations, the son, when he arrived, was killed by an Egyptian faction who opposed the queen.

    Hittites recorded this offense in one of the “plague prayers” inscribed during the rule of Suppiluliumas’s successor, Mursilis II. The words show the central role chariots played in both the war and regional diplomacy that followed:

    My father sent infantry and chariot fighters and they attacked the border territory. And, moreover, he sent (more troops) and again, they attacked. [The] men of Egypt became afraid. They came, and they asked my father outright for his son for kingship. And when they led him away, they killed him. And my father became angry, and he went into Egyptian territory, and he attacked the infantry and chariot fighters of Egypt.

    Suppiluliumas was killed by plague, as the existence of the plague poems indicates. His son Mursilis II took the throne, but his reign was overshadowed by pestilence. Although he had to put down constant challenges to his rule, he passed on a stable and expanding empire to his son, who would play a fateful role in Hittite history. The new king was Muwatallis II, who faced Ramses II at Kadesh in 1275 B.C.

    Hittite horse whisperer

    Chariots are only as good as the animals that draw them, making a supply of healthy, well-trained horses a priority to the Hittites. A fascinating text on equine management, dated to the 13th century B.C., was found at the ancient site of the Hittite capital Hattusa. It begins with the words “Thus [speaks] Kikkuli, the horse trainer of the land of Mitanni.” An immigrant in the service of the Hittite king, Kikkuli’s vocabulary is of great interest to historians: a mixture of Hittite, his native Hurrian, as well as a smattering of other words from the Middle East. The text is divided into three parts. First, Kikkuli explains the four-day process of selecting the right animals. Then, he details a training method that begins in autumn and lasts for 184 days. The routine starts with the horses practicing exercises without pulling any weight to build up their stamina and help prevent injury. The third section gives instructions on how the horses should be fed and watered. The focus is entirely equestrian, and does not dwell on the other, vital component of a chariot: the drivers.


    The Seven Nations of Canaan

    ?Take the Land Little by Little?

    "When the LORD your God brings you into the land where you are entering to possess it, and clears away many nations before you, the Hittites and the Girgashites and the Amorites and the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Hivites and the Jebusites, seven nations greater and stronger than you," (Deuteronomy 7:1)


    The judgment of the nations of Canaan was a milestone in the fulfillment of God?s covenant to Abraham & Sarah, it is central to the establishment of the nation of Israel, the chosen people of God. The promise of a ?nation of descendants? to the childless old man & woman, reflects the faith nature of God, who asks for trust in Himself and His character, before any proof is given. Though the obstacles are much bigger than us, and remaining permanently beyond what we can grasp for ourselves, God offers His Word as the only proof, and by trusting, miraculous results follow, and we change. Abraham ?believed God? and righteousness was given him as a free gift. (Gen. 15:6)

    In Abraham?s time, God spoke of the Amorites, one of the seven nations, who were even then in pursuit of evil, and He gave them 400 more years before His judgment would come.

    "Then in the fourth generation they will return here, for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet complete." (Gen 15:16)


    But over that time, their wickedness increased from generation to generation. Can you imagine the presence and power of Satan imbedded and contagiously spreading through the doorway nations of Canaan? Can you imagine darkness so expansive through a culture, that the people who carry God?s plan of redemption were at risk of being overwhelmed and destroyed? These Canaanite nations were offering up their live babies as burnt offerings to the demonic false gods they worshipped. After 400 years, the evil was complete the dominance of darkness deep-rooted, wide-spread, and in control. God?s judgment was also full and complete. The Lord said of them:


    ?Even the land itself became polluted and I punished it for its iniquities--the land vomited up its inhabitants."(Lev. 18:25)


    God rose up in defense of His plan to redeem mankind, and to rid the earth of Satan?s effort to prevent it. He took His land, which He created, back. He gave it to His redemptive people. But for His plan to work, Israel would have to co-labor with Him, and by faith, would have to fight for it, inch by bloody inch.


    The conquest of the Promised Land is a type or ?symbolic template? of all the promises of God for believers in Christ. Their promised land was physical our promised land is spiritual. Their battle was against seven demon possessed nations that had to be conquered, ?little by little?.


    "The LORD your God will clear away these nations before you little by little you will not be able to put an end to them quickly, for the wild beasts would grow too numerous for you." (Deuteronomy 7:22)


    "I will drive them out before you little by little, until you become fruitful and take possession of the land."

    Our battle is against the demonic powers that stand in the way of our promises being fulfilled. Our promised land, is our own nature, much of it, still occupied territory, unsanctified by the transforming power of God?s Holy Spirit. Our promised land are the sheep of God yet to be brought into the fold. Our promised land is ultimately heaven. We place one foot in front of the other, trusting God for His mercy and strength to persevere, we ?suit up and show up, we will, like Joshua and Caleb, be among those who inherit promises, one by one, step by step, inch by bloody inch, and little by little. And there is no deeper joy, than inheriting the land God promised you, by faith.


    God is able and willing, to help us overcome those problems that are ?greater and stronger? than we. (Deut. 7:1) Let?s trust Him walk forward, and little by little, together with God, we will overcome.

    The Bible mentions a lot regarding God's promises:

    Deuteronomy 15:6 - For the LORD thy God blesseth thee, as he promised thee: and thou shalt lend unto many nations, but thou shalt not borrow and thou shalt reign over many nations, but they shall not reign over thee.

    Deuteronomy 27:3 - And thou shalt write upon them all the words of this law, when thou art passed over, that thou mayest go in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, a land that floweth with milk and honey as the LORD God of thy fathers hath promised thee.

    Joshua 23:15 - Therefore it shall come to pass, [that] as all good things are come upon you, which the LORD your God promised you so shall the LORD bring upon you all evil things, until he have destroyed you from off this good land which the LORD your God hath given you.

    Deuteronomy 12:20 - When the LORD thy God shall enlarge thy border, as he hath promised thee, and thou shalt say, I will eat flesh, because thy soul longeth to eat flesh thou mayest eat flesh, whatsoever thy soul lusteth after.

    2 Chronicles 6:10 - The LORD therefore hath performed his word that he hath spoken: for I am risen up in the room of David my father, and am set on the throne of Israel, as the LORD promised, and have built the house for the name of the LORD God of Israel.

    2 Chronicles 6:16 - Now therefore, O LORD God of Israel, keep with thy servant David my father that which thou hast promised him, saying, There shall not fail thee a man in my sight to sit upon the throne of Israel yet so that thy children take heed to their way to walk in my law, as thou hast walked before me.

    Deuteronomy 23:23 - That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt keep and perform [even] a freewill offering, according as thou hast vowed unto the LORD thy God, which thou hast promised with thy mouth.

    2 Chronicles 6:15 - Thou which hast kept with thy servant David my father that which thou hast promised him and spakest with thy mouth, and hast fulfilled [it] with thine hand, as [it is] this day.

    1 Kings 8:20 - And the LORD hath performed his word that he spake, and I am risen up in the room of David my father, and sit on the throne of Israel, as the LORD promised, and have built an house for the name of the LORD God of Israel.

    Deuteronomy 10:9 - Wherefore Levi hath no part nor inheritance with his brethren the LORD [is] his inheritance, according as the LORD thy God promised him.

    1 Kings 9:5 - Then I will establish the throne of thy kingdom upon Israel for ever, as I promised to David thy father, saying, There shall not fail thee a man upon the throne of Israel.

    Deuteronomy 19:8 - And if the LORD thy God enlarge thy coast, as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, and give thee all the land which he promised to give unto thy fathers

    Deuteronomy 26:18 - And the LORD hath avouched thee this day to be his peculiar people, as he hath promised thee, and that [thou] shouldest keep all his commandments

    Deuteronomy 6:3 - Hear therefore, O Israel, and observe to do [it] that it may be well with thee, and that ye may increase mightily, as the LORD God of thy fathers hath promised thee, in the land that floweth with milk and honey.

    Joshua 22:4 - And now the LORD your God hath given rest unto your brethren, as he promised them: therefore now return ye, and get you unto your tents, [and] unto the land of your possession, which Moses the servant of the LORD gave you on the other side Jordan.

    James 2:5 - Hearken, my beloved brethren, Hath not God chosen the poor of this world rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he hath promised to them that love him?

    1 Kings 2:24 - Now therefore, [as] the LORD liveth, which hath established me, and set me on the throne of David my father, and who hath made me an house, as he promised, Adonijah shall be put to death this day.

    Deuteronomy 9:28 - Lest the land whence thou broughtest us out say, Because the LORD was not able to bring them into the land which he promised them, and because he hated them, he hath brought them out to slay them in the wilderness.

    Nehemiah 9:23 - Their children also multipliedst thou as the stars of heaven, and broughtest them into the land, concerning which thou hadst promised to their fathers, that they should go in to possess [it].

    Jeremiah 33:14 - Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will perform that good thing which I have promised unto the house of Israel and to the house of Judah.

    2 Chronicles 21:7 - Howbeit the LORD would not destroy the house of David, because of the covenant that he had made with David, and as he promised to give a light to him and to his sons for ever.

    1 Kings 5:12 - And the LORD gave Solomon wisdom, as he promised him: and there was peace between Hiram and Solomon and they two made a league together.

    Hebrews 12:26 - Whose voice then shook the earth: but now he hath promised, saying, Yet once more I shake not the earth only, but also heaven.

    Joshua 9:21 - And the princes said unto them, Let them live but let them be hewers of wood and drawers of water unto all the congregation as the princes had promised them.

    Joshua 23:5 - And the LORD your God, he shall expel them from before you, and drive them from out of your sight and ye shall possess their land, as the LORD your God hath promised unto you.

    2 Samuel 7:28 - And now, O Lord GOD, thou [art] that God, and thy words be true, and thou hast promised this goodness unto thy servant:

    Hebrews 11:11 - Through faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive seed, and was delivered of a child when she was past age, because she judged him faithful who had promised.

    2 Kings 8:19 - Yet the LORD would not destroy Judah for David his servant's sake, as he promised him to give him alway a light, [and] to his children.

    Esther 4:7 - And Mordecai told him of all that had happened unto him, and of the sum of the money that Haman had promised to pay to the king's treasuries for the Jews, to destroy them.

    James 1:12 - Blessed [is] the man that endureth temptation: for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him.


    ‘We are the World’

    On January 28, 1985, in a fit of pique, Cyndi Lauper declared, “That’s right! Ain’t what we’re doing trying to unite the world?” 1 Lauper’s comment was a direct response to a creative dispute taking place in a Los Angeles music studio where such prominent and diverse musicians as Willie Nelson, Michael Jackson, Lionel Ritchie, and Bob Dylan had gathered to record the song “We Are The World.”

    Lionel Ritchie and Michael Jackson wrote the song and recruited fellow musicians to record it in an attempt to provide aid relief to the victims of the Ethiopian famine. Although the famine began in 1983 with counter-insurgency strategies instituted by Chairman Mengistu in the Northern regions of the country, two years passed before attention in the United States focused on the great humanitarian emergency taking place within Ethiopia. 2 The focused attention culminated in the great LiveAid concert and “We Are the World” recording which garnered millions of dollars intended for African famine relief.


    Music stars gather to record “We Are the World”

    The special instruction Quincy Jones sent out to the several dozen pop stars invited to participate in the recording of “We Are the World” was this: 𠇌heck your egos at the door.” Jones was the producer of a record that would eventually go on to sell more than 7 million copies and raise more than $60 million for African famine relief. But before “We Are the World” could achieve those feats, it had to be captured on tape—no simple feat considering the number of major recording artists slated to participate. With only one chance to get the recording the way he and songwriters Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie wanted it, Jones convened the marathon recording session of “We Are the World” at around 10 p.m. on the evening of January 28, 1985, immediately following the conclusion of the American Music Awards ceremony held just a few miles away.

    Singer/actor/activist Harry Belafonte was the initiator of the events that led to the recording of “We Are the World.” Inspired by the recent success of 𠇍o They Know It’s Christmas?”—the multimillion-selling charity record by the British-Irish collective Band Aid�lafonte talked Richie, Jackson and Jones into helping him organize an American response under the name “USA for Africa.” Richie and Jackson wrote the song over the course of several days in January, and Belafonte’s manager, Ken Kragen, who would go on to serve as President of the USA for Africa Foundation, the nonprofit organization that managed the profits from “We Are the World,” came up with the plan to hold the session on the night of the AMA&aposs in order to guarantee that the greatest number of big names would be able to participate.


    Live Aid concert raises $127 million for famine relief in Africa

    On July 13, 1985, at Wembley Stadium in London, Prince Charles and Princess Diana officially open Live Aid, a worldwide rock concert organized to raise money for the relief of famine-stricken Africans. Continued at JFK Stadium in Philadelphia (where Joan Baez famously kicked it off by telling the crowd "this is your Woodstock, and it&aposs long overdue") and at other arenas around the world, the 16-hour “superconcert” was globally linked by satellite to more than a billion viewers in 110 nations. In a triumph of technology and good will, the event raised more than $125 million in famine relief for Africa.

    Live Aid was the brainchild of Bob Geldof, the singer of an Irish rock group called the Boomtown Rats. In 1984, Geldof traveled to Ethiopia after hearing news reports of a horrific famine that had killed hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians and threatened to kill millions more. After returning to London, he called Britain’s and Ireland’s top pop artists together to record a single to benefit Ethiopian famine relief. 𠇍o They Know It’s Christmas?” was written by Geldof and Ultravox singer Midge Ure and performed by �nd Aid,” an ensemble that featured Culture Club, Duran Duran, Phil Collins, U2, Wham! and others. It was the best-selling single in Britain to that date and raised more than $10 million.

    𠇍o They Know It’s Christmas?” was also a No. 1 hit in the United States and inspired U.S. pop artists to come together and perform “We Are the World,” a song written by Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie. “USA for Africa,” as the U.S. ensemble was known, featured Jackson, Richie, Geldof, Harry Belafonte, Bob Dylan, Cyndi Lauper, Paul Simon, Bruce Springsteen, Tina Turner, Stevie Wonder, and many others. The single went to the top of the charts and eventually raised $44 million.

    With the crisis continuing in Ethiopia, and the neighboring Sudan also stricken with famine, Geldof proposed Live Aid, an ambitious global charity concert aimed at raising more funds and increasing awareness of the plight of many Africans. Organized in just 10 weeks, Live Aid was staged on Saturday, July 13, 1985. The lineup featured more than 75 acts, including Elton John, Queen, Madonna, Santana, Run DMC, Sade, Sting, Bryan Adams, the Beach Boys, Mick Jagger, David Bowie, Duran Duran, U2, the Who, Tom Petty, Neil Youngਊnd Eric Clapton. The majority of these artists performed at either Wembley Stadium in London, where a crowd of 70,000 turned out, or at Philadelphia’s JFK Stadium, where 100,000 watched. Thirteen satellites beamed a live television broadcast of the event to more than one billion viewers in 110 countries. More than 40 of these nations held telethons for African famine relief during the broadcast.

    A memorable performance of the concert was by Queen, particularly frontman Freddie Mercury, who unexpectedly stole the show with a fierce performance. With the group losing steam as they went into the early 1980s after a career of multiple hits, they offered the crowd an unforgettable 20-minute performance. Going from "Bohemian Rhapsody" to "We Will Rock You" and finishing with "We Are the Champions," Queen captivated the audience with a journey through their hits, with Mercury at the helm.

    Another top moment was by Phil Collins in Philadelphia after flying by Concorde from London, where he performed at Wembley earlier in the day. He later played drums in a reunion of the surviving members of Led Zeppelin. Beatle Paul McCartney and the Who’s Pete Townsend held Bob Geldof aloft on their shoulders during the London finale, which featured a collective performance of 𠇍o They Know It’s Christmas?” Six hours later, the U.S. concert ended with “We Are the World.”

    Live Aid eventually raised $127 million in famine relief for African nations, and the publicity it generated encouraged Western nations to make available enough surplus grain to end the immediate hunger crisis in Africa. Geldof was later knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his efforts.

    In early July 2005, Geldof staged a series of “Live 8″ concerts in 11 countries around the world to help raise awareness of global poverty. Organizers, led by Geldof, purposely scheduled the concert days before the annual G8 summit in an effort to increase political pressure on G8 nations to address issues facing the extremely poor around the world. Live 8 claims that an estimated 3 billion people watched 1,000 musicians perform in 11 shows, which were broadcast on 182 television networks and by 2,000 radio stations. Unlike Live Aid, Live 8 was intentionally not billed as a fundraiser–Geldof’s slogan was, “We don’t want your money, we want your voice.” Perhaps in part because of the spotlight brought to such issues by Live 8, the G8 subsequently voted to cancel the debt of 18 of the world’s poorest nations, make AIDS drugs more accessible, and double levels of annual aid to Africa, to $50 billion.


    Second New Deal

    Despite the best efforts of President Roosevelt and his cabinet, however, the Great Depression continued. Unemployment persisted, the economy remained unstable, farmers continued to struggle in the Dust Bowl and people grew angrier and more desperate.

    So, in the spring of 1935, Roosevelt launched a second, more aggressive series of federal programs, sometimes called the Second New Deal.

    In April, he created the Works Progress Administration (WPA) to provide jobs for unemployed people. WPA projects weren’t allowed to compete with private industry, so they focused on building things like post offices, bridges, schools, highways and parks. The WPA also gave work to artists, writers, theater directors and musicians.

    In July 1935, the National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act, created the National Labor Relations Board to supervise union elections and prevent businesses from treating their workers unfairly. In August, FDR signed the Social Security Act of 1935, which guaranteed pensions to millions of Americans, set up a system of unemployment insurance and stipulated that the federal government would help care for dependent children and the disabled.

    In 1936, while campaigning for a second term, FDR told a roaring crowd at Madison Square Garden that “The forces of ‘organized money’ are unanimous in their hate for me – and I welcome their hatred.”

    He went on: “I should like to have it said of my first Administration that in it the forces of selfishness and of lust for power met their match, [and] I should like to have it said of my second Administration that in it these forces have met their master.”

    This FDR had come a long way from his earlier repudiation of class-based politics and was promising a much more aggressive fight against the people who were profiting from the Depression-era troubles of ordinary Americans. He won the election by a landslide.

    Still, the Great Depression dragged on. Workers grew more militant: In December 1936, for example, the United Auto Workers strike at a GM plant in Flint, Michigan lasted for 44 days and spread to some 150,000 autoworkers in 35 cities.

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    Watch the video: The Sound of the Hittite language Vocabulary u0026 Sample Texts (December 2021).