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The Depression Gets Worse - History

The Depression Gets Worse - History

The Depression Gets Worse


With the economy worsening there was a cry to protect American industry from competition and from the overcapacity that had developed with US manufacturers. Congress acted quickly and passed the Hawley Smoot act. The act increased the tariff (import taxes) on a broad range of products. When Congress passed it, 1028 economist signed a petition to President Hoover asking him to veto the bill. Leading industrialist all pleaded with Hoover to do so but to no avail. He signed it. The result of this action was a wave of other countries raising their import duties so that world trade plummeted.

The situation was further compounded when Great Britain, whose economy was under pressure, took itself off the gold standard. The gold standard fixed the value of its currency to the price of gold and was therefore limited the money it could print. When it did the value of the British and other currencies went down, thus slowing trade further and hurting US banks, which had lent money overseas. In 1931 a record 2294 US banks failed.

President Hoover was very concerned that the economic troubles were causing a budget deficient for the US (when you spend more then you take in). Hoover believed that this was very dangerous for the country. He, therefore, proposed an increase in income taxes. Congress rapidly passed that increase. This marked the final nail in the coffin that was the US economy.


Depression and Older Adults

Depression is more than just feeling sad or blue. It is a common but serious mood disorder that needs treatment. It causes severe symptoms that affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, and working.

When you have depression, you have trouble with daily life for weeks at a time. Doctors call this condition “depressive disorder” or “clinical depression.”

Depression is a real illness. It is not a sign of a person’s weakness or a character flaw. You can’t “snap out of” clinical depression. Most people who experience depression need treatment to get better.


Getting Positioned For The WORST DEPRESSION IN THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD

The gargantuan global debt bubble is now imploding at an astounding and terrifying rate, with the virus acting as a catalyst to speed up the process thanks to the lockdowns and the massive economic disruption that they are causing. The global economy is coming to a dead stop, with the airline, catering and tourism industries the first victims and already largely destroyed in the space of just a couple of months. Several days ago on TV there was the extraordinary sight of hundreds of cars in various US locations snaking sometimes for miles in lines to collect food handouts – and these weren’t beat up old clunkers held together with wire and duct tape like in the days of the Beverly Hillbillies – many of them were flashy SUVs and Mercedes etc. What became clear from the reporters talking to some of the people stuck in these lines is that a few months ago, or even weeks ago, many of them were living comfortable middle class lifestyles, and then they suddenly found themselves with no work, no income and quickly broke. Sadly, what also became clear is that many in the line thought that this was just a temporary phenomenon, not realizing that in the future they will be lucky if they are able to afford to run their vehicles. What we are seeing here of course is the modern equivalent of the 30’s soup kitchen lines, which means that we are already in an economic depression.

The reason that this article is titled “Getting Positioned for the WORST DEPRESSION IN THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD” is that debt and derivatives have never built up to such vast levels on a global scale before. It will take a correspondingly severe depression to eliminate this gargantuan mountain of dross.

Greg Mannarino postulates in his uniquely insightful video blogs that a big reason for the lockdowns was to intentionally kill the economy and bring the velocity of money to a dead stop, so that the Fed could create limitless amounts of money to buy and backstop everything without immediately stoking inflation leading to hyperinflation, and also to destroy small businesses so that their assets and workforces could be mopped up by the big corporations who are the beneficiaries of bailouts. Whilst I agree that these were probably key objectives, I think there was also a simpler explanation for the destructive lockdowns. The gangsters now running the Western world realized that they have taken debt expansion to its ultimate extreme and that they could no longer keep the game going – it was becoming dangerously unstable as evidenced by the Repo market starting to fly apart last Fall, necessitating Fed intervention. So basically, they decided to “pull the plug” on the whole thing, but clearly, the resulting mass unemployment, destitution and poverty are creating the conditions where the angry masses, looking around for someone to blame, would come after their leaders with guns and pitchforks. So they had to contrive a way to effectively impose Martial Law without actually calling it that, which would further incense the downtrodden masses. Hence, the release of the virus which fooled the masses into locking themselves down. While the virus undoubtedly has some killing power, which gives it credibility, the death and illness statistics are fiddled and grossly exaggerated by a compliant media, with hospitals being financially incentivized to label most deaths as Covid-19 deaths and to place people on ventilators etc. all in order to scare the sheep into accepting the use of “fear masks” that are designed to amplify the paranoia and into accepting the lockdowns that accelerate the destruction of the economy, so that their lives will soon be at far more at risk from destitution and hunger than they are from the virus.

Another core reason for our despotic leaders to seek to kill the economy via the lockdowns is to stop the velocity of money from accelerating so that they can create limitless quantities of money not just to “buy the world” as Greg Mannariono asserts, but also to prop up stockmarkets and more importantly the debt markets to prevent interest rates from spiking. They don’t know it yet, but they are like King Canute trying to hold back the tide.

One thing that the masses seem incapable of comprehending is that the Central Banks run the world. They are the true power, so in effect the world is run by faceless unelected plutocrats who print as much money as they like to enrich themselves at everyone else’s expense while coercing everyone else into debt slavery. Governments are merely puppet shows put on to amuse and distract the masses. In the US it is really extreme, they don’t even bother to have more than two parties (controlled by the same Masters) who are like Punch and Judy. It’s always a laughable and pitiable sight to see the sheep lining up to vote every 4 years, thinking that their puny vote will make a difference, when of course it makes no difference whatsoever.

It is the towering mountain of debt built up to critical mass over many decades that is now causing the global economy to implode, the virus was merely a catalyst introduced to “get it done and over with”. National debt, municipal debt, corporate debt and personal debt of every kind including credit card debt and student debt constitutes a gigantic festering putrefying stinking mountain of accumulated intrinsically worthless garbage that will – all of it – end up totally worthless before this depression is over as a necessary prelude to a new beginning. Mannarino asserts that the Fed is using this crisis to “buy up the world” and he’s probably right, but if they are they are welcome to it – would you want to own this garbage? What will happen is that their exponential money creation in pursuit of this end will eventually ignite a hyperinflationary firestorm that burns everything to the ground, so that they end up as the proud owners of NOTHING.

Thus, if you think things are bad now, this is a “walk in the park” compared to what’s coming down the pike when their desperate efforts to prop up the debt markets and stop rates rising by ballooning their money creation at an exponentially increasing rate lead to their value being eviscerated by hyperinflation, so that all this debt ends up as worthless in real terms anyway.

To his eternal credit Egon Von Greyerz has been warning of what is happening now for years, and you can’t call a guy who runs a gold depository in Switzerland a fringe wing conspiracy theory nut case. Most have ignored him of course – they weren’t going to allow him to spoil their party on the Titanic with his dire predictions. Now he is being proved right. As he states in his new article THE GLOBAL FOREST FIRE IS HERE “There is a perception in the world that things will continue as they are and that the Deep State is going to control us all in a totalitarian world. What few realize is that the Deep State or Powers That Be are going to lose control totally. They are totally dependent on the world in which they can control everything through debt and the fake monetary system they have created. But let me make it clear that this fake system is about to implode.” I might add that Central Bankers could well end up making an undignified departure with a sharp kick up the rear end as they exit the stage right, perhaps after first being tarred and feathered – and that’s if they are lucky.

So what can the ordinary citizen best do to protect him or herself? I am not going to go into detail on survivalist information here, because it is beyond the scope of the site, and in any case there is a wealth of information available online, but listed below are some things it might be prudent to pay attention to. This is not intended to be alarmist, merely precautionary….

  • If you haven’t done so already, place a reasonable percentage of whatever assets you have in gold and silver, and ideally of this a significant percentage in physical gold and silver. Premiums for physical are now high – pay them – because they are going to get even bigger before physical is almost impossible to obtain. Silver is thought to be good for everyday transactions, especially silver coins – while you can show up at a sparse market and say “I’ll swap this silver coin for that bag of potatoes, those 2 cauliflowers and a leek.” If you whip out a gold bar and say I’ll swap this for that truckload of food, you might find that in response they pull a gun or a knife on you, take your gold and keep the food.
  • Lay in a supply of non-perishable foodstuffs, as much as you reasonably can, not forgetting other essentials, like access to a clean water supply where possible. Also consider solar power, which is now much cheaper to install and perhaps a generator, if you live in the country.
  • If you have got guns you are fortunate – you may need them if you want to keep your stuff. If not get some and plenty of ammo and get practiced at using them in a hurry. Don’t try to rely on the police – by the time they show up 20 or 30 minutes later it will be all over, and that’s if they show up at all – they’ll be too busy protecting politicians and the wealthy. When wild-eyed starving people come looking for your supplies they are not going to greet you by doffing their hats and saying “Good evening – I wonder if you could spare a cup of sugar?” It will be them or you, and they are likely to turn up in numbers.
  • Form friendly cooperate alliances with neighbors, just don’t tell them about your food stash. Supposed friends can quickly become enemies when they are hungry enough.
  • Have a supply of cash around the house, regardless of the ravages of inflation. Don’t leave much money in bank accounts as they could slam their doors unexpectedly when things get bad. Also split it, so if one fails you don’t “have all your eggs in one basket”.
  • After you have made sensible preparations such as the above, which is only a basic list, try to avoid brooding about all this and enjoy life as much as you can while it’s still possible. Even if you are largely confined to your home for periods of time, the internet is a great source of information and entertainment. Here is a short film from an English seaside resort made at a time when the world was getting better instead of rapidly getting worse thanks to fiat and debt as it is now, called Vive Torbay. The beautiful woman on the sea wall is at 4:25 – sadly, as this film was made 52 years ago, she probably doesn’t look quite so good now.

While I do not know for sure whether the measures listed above will turn out to be necessary or not, it’s better to be safe than sorry, and most of the items acquired you can end up using anyway, even if things don’t get worse.

I want to draw your attention to a couple of video blogs by Greg Mannarino where he sets out in no uncertain terms what’s going on. The first is NWO: The Fed Has Their Boot On Your Throat and another where he makes it crystal clear what the virus fiasco and lockdowns are really all about is The Truth Behind The Current TWISTED NIGHTMARE. This video should have at least 26 million hits, or more like 260 million, not 27,000, and the fact that it has so few is depressing and makes you understand why so many are going around wearing fear masks and submitting to Martial Law in the form of lockdowns. Overall Greg’s recent video blogs present a picture of an unfolding dystopian nightmare of a downward slide into a global fascist police state, and while that is certainly the direction things are taking, I am inclined to agree with Egon Von Greyerz’s view of the future presented above which is that all the elements of the immense global debt bubble will disappear into the vortex of a hyperinflationary firestorm that will render them utterly worthless and thus eliminate the parasitic stranglehold of the Central Banks and in particular the Federal Reserve that is based on their ability to create money out of nothing and impose debt servitude on the entire world – when the debt is worthless their power will evaporate. The chaos of “The Global Reset” will wipe the slate clean, sweeping away the purveyors of debt, which will enable a new beginning for those who survive it all based on sound money principles.

While the Central Banks and the Deep State have some pretty big plans, that involve buying up the world and becoming Masters of everyone and everything, imposing a global police State, creating a cashless society where everyone is monitored, and forcibly vaccinating the masses to tag them and make it possible to engage in population control measures etc, their plans are dependent on ongoing debt slavery, but as Von Greyerz makes clear in his quote above and is his articles, they are going to lose control as this bubble blows to smithereens, so that if they think they can create endless rounds of trillions of dollars and yet prevent hyperinflation by killing the economy by means of lockdowns etc, to stop the velocity of money accelerating, they are very much mistaken. This course of action designed to prevent the debt markets going into free fall will not stop inflation leaking out all over the place and then accelerating into hyperinflation that destroys the value of debt anyway and also all fiat. As this process gets underway they are likely to lose control so that what they are trying to prevent happens anyway – the debt markets violently implode leading to spiking interest rates and what economy there is coming to a dead stop.

So let’s be clear about this – the severe depression that we are moving into will not end until this gigantic mountain of debt sludge is rendered utterly worthless. THIS IS THE RESET THAT HAS TO HAPPEN AND WILL HAPPEN, and when it does the Central Banks will lose their stranglehold on the world and go the way of the dinosaurs, after which the world can make a fresh start based on sound money principles, such as currency being backed by gold again.

Greg Mannarino presents the gloomy view that the Central banks are all powerful and are intent on creating a “300-year Reich”. He’s right, they are and that is what they have planned. However, we all know what happened to Hitler’s planned 1000-year Reich. Egon Von Greyerz has an ultimately more optimistic view that after everything has burned to the ground, destroying the powers that be, there will be a fresh start and a rebuild. That is what I think will happen and we will end by considering what the ancient Chinese book of wisdom the I Ching, or Book of Changes, has to say about the current situation, and in particular about the entrenched powers that have steered us towards ruin such as the Central Banks, corrupt and compromised politicians, the Military – Industrial complex and the vaccine barons etc.

In Hexagram 36 The Darkening of the Light, top line of Hexagram (and don’t let anti-Chinese sentiment related to the virus supposedly starting in Wuhan influence you when considering this):

First he climbed up to heaven,

Then he plunged into the depths of the earth.

Here the climax of the darkening is reached. The dark power at first held so high a place that it could wound all who were on the side of the good and of the light. But in the end it perishes of its own darkness, for evil must itself fall at the very moment when it has wholly overcome the good, and thus consumed the energy to which it owed its duration.

Our aim must be to position ourselves to weather this breaking storm as best we can, and the site must focus on the most appropriate investments, that are of course gold and silver, which always hold their intrinsic value no matter what.


How Is Biology Related to Depression?

Researchers have noted differences in the brains of people who have clinical depression compared with those who do not. For instance, the hippocampus, a small part of the brain that is vital to the storage of memories, appears to be smaller in some people with a history of depression than in those who've never been depressed. A smaller hippocampus has fewer serotonin receptors. Serotonin is one of many brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters that allow communication across circuits that connect the brain regions involved in processing emotions.

Continued

Scientists do not know why the hippocampus may be smaller in some people with depression. Some researchers have found that the stress hormone cortisol is produced in excess in depressed people. These investigators believe that cortisol has a toxic or "shrinking" effect on the development of the hippocampus. Some experts think depressed people may be simply born with a smaller hippocampus and are thus inclined to have depression. There are many other brain regions, and pathways between specific regions, thought to be involved with depression, and likely, no single brain structure or pathway fully accounts for clinical depression.

One thing is certain: Depression is a complex illness with many contributing factors. The latest scans and studies of brain structure and function suggest that antidepressants can exert "neurotrophic effects," meaning that they can help sustain nerve cells, prevent them from dying, and allow them to form stronger connections that withstand biological stresses. As scientists gain a better understanding of the causes of depression, health professionals will be able to make better "tailored" diagnoses and, in turn, prescribe more effective treatment plans.


Add a Comment11 Comments

and like ever since then ive been wanting to be alone but like i dont know what to do anymore :(

This Comment

So I have a question. Well i got somethings to say first, So i have like this kinda small brown birthmark on my chin and its so noticeable and so people have been calling me an ugly b and ever since that i have been staying up until 1 in the morning, been having stress and thinking about suicide and ive been cutting my wrist with a knife and im only 12 and i want to do suicide but at the same time i also dont want to :( and i honestly dont know what to do with my life anymore :( like and ive talked to my teachers but they dont care and im to the point of wanting to be dead

This Comment

Your life is worth far more than a birth mark. Ending your life would end your future and hurt so many around you. People can be very cruel, that is true. You have to get through it. Do you have someone to talk to besides teachers? A parent or trusted adult? There is help out there.

There is also a hotline to use - 1-800-273-8255 where you can get help. It's open 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Please give them a call.

This Comment

I found this site because I'm at the point where I just can't take it anymore. The people on this Earth are all just cruel and heartless, it seems. Everything feels like it's my fault, and my parents don't make it much better. My mother knows I have depression, but all she seems to do is make it worse. Looking back at myself when I was young, it surprises me how I could get up and act as if the world was all sunshine and rainbows. Everyone at school jokes about depression, not knowing that there's someone struggling with it right behind them. People always say, "You can't be sad, there's people who have it worse than you." Really, it's like saying you can't be happy because others have it better. But whenever I'd say that, they would just not care. I literally have no one who actually cares. I can't see myself going anywhere in life, I just don't have a purpose. All I do is waste everyone else's oxygen. I don't fit in with the few people I talk to at school, and my best friend has stopped talking to me because she found other friends. I've tried cutting, and it helped for a while, but now I've fallen deeper. And I know I won't ever be happy again, so I've decided I want to end it. Everyone says that people who speak about ending their lives don't actually do it, well- I guess I'm going to prove them wrong.

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Please don't. We love you! You are an amazing, strong, person! I'm struggling with the same things, but helping people with this is what keeps me alive. So please! Stay with us. You are fucking amazing!

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Dont do that bro, i am also suffering for by the same and i think that it would have been better if world would have ended but there is you life keep going it smooth, god will surely send someone who will understand us

This Comment

I pray that you are okay and that God moves in your life to heal your depression. If you feel no one else cares, know that I do.

This Comment

I am at a point of giving up.

This Comment

I feel the same way. Please don't give up. Maybe we can get through this together.

This Comment

I don't recall my log in. My husband took his life in 2012. He was high functioning autistic but it was never diagnosed and since this was a marriage later in our lives, it wasn't as noticeable as it may have been when he was much younger. Much has happened in my life since his death but everything is still tied to him because there is so much to get through before I can even experience/live my life in a more positive manner. Having a support system would be nice but I don't have too much in that arena. I have been fortunate to literally Push myself into taking a class that I have not been able to utilize the information yet due to my stress and feeling like I'm just coming out from post traumatic stress, but the good thing of the class besides the information is that I did meet two women with whom I sometimes communicate and we do get together sometimes. That connection has been heavenly sent and much appreciated. I've learned much about autism and now I am learning about shock and grief. For me, it is so emotional and yet I know but it's difficult to understand that to my late husband, his life and death (due to the autism) could have been a "to do" check list for the day. My mind has done all the questioning: I should have, would have, could have, or could I, or was it, or was it not, and dozens more. May all those who suffer loss, find peace and love.

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We value and respect our HERWriters' experiences, but everyone is different. Many of our writers are speaking from personal experience, and what's worked for them may not work for you. Their articles are not a substitute for medical advice, although we hope you can gain knowledge from their insight.


Depression As We Get Older

THE BASICS

“In a spiritually sensitive culture, it might well be that age is something to be admired or envied.” - Rowan D. Williams

In the midst of all the symptoms of this insidious illness, there lies something that may be equally disturbing. It may or may not surprise you to hear that at the core of all depressions are psychological issues that are common to practically everyone as we get older. I’ll explain.

Children can totally immerse themselves in a fantasy world. Even as they grow up and into young adulthood, they can still live in a form of fantasy—that their lives will last forever. Even the first inklings of “Oh my gosh, I’m turning 30,” can be easily distracted from at that age.

Eventually, the distractions and denial collide with reality—the reality that everyone and everything we love and cherish including our own existence will be gone. Reaching retirement, the death of friends and family, the loss of looks and abilities with increasing medical conditions, these are all intrusions into that youthful fantasy which can lead to what the poet Thoreau called “lives of quiet desperation.”

Add the increasing vulnerability to brain chemistry imbalances and the twelve million older adults with known and reported symptoms of depression may just be the tip of the iceberg.

So is this the inevitable outcome of leading a human life—that our older years are bound to be fraught with grief and the stress of aging, which also raises our odds of having a clinical depression? The answer is not only “no,” the outcome can be the opposite…if it’s played right.

Examples abound in both religious and nonreligious circles of individuals who, in their older years, are endowed with such wisdom and heightened maturity that they find peace and contentment they had never known before.

Then, looking to the East, there’s the classic story of Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha who, having grown up insulated, was exposed to old age, sickness and death in a way that shocked and depressed him. (Remind you of the more gradual anguish that comes from getting older?) Using that heightened awareness, he Awakened himself to a reality that has been described as Nirvana, an ecstatic realization that brought him to a higher level of living than he had ever imagined possible.

So what does this myth—if it is actually all a myth—have to do with clinical depression in older adults? Plenty. Because there was a Siddhartha and he did realize something that has been passed down faithfully over thousands of years to modern times: that suffering can spur great Awakening. And that great Awakening reveals the mystery and amazement of life every second we are alive.

Now granted Major Depression is a brain disease. However, as much as we know about the biological causes of depression, we are learning more and more about the potential of the brain (called neuroplasticity) to undergo radical change at any time of life. Any time of life!

Let’s put two and two together: The brain can get sick and cause depression. The brain can also be trained to radically evolve into a great Awakening—a stage of extraordinary maturity known to a small segment of the population for thousands of years. It means a blissful excitement and appreciation for life and pleasant tranquility all the remaining days of your life.

Ergo, get the sick brain well with:

  • Complementary healthcare (blending alternative healthcare with conventional medicine)
  • Modern life and wellness practices (all the things you’d learn in the self-help section of a bookstore, from diet advice to how to organize clutter to ways to manage stress) or contemporary brain exercises used for the same purpose as meditation (the subject of my book and workshops)

THE BASICS

Of course, you need a clear and concise game plan, based on brain sciences, complementary psychiatry and modern life-wellness. And all of it has to be geared specifically for the purpose of promoting the highest stages of brain development known (that is, “Awakened” levels).

So, that’s how it is technically done. The inevitable suffering and shock of advancing age—even clinical depression—can be used for transformation into unimaginable appreciation, meaning and life-satisfaction.

Yet, to be able to implement this rigorous game plan there must be structures in place for community support, professional guidance and education in a variety of areas. However, regardless of the difficulty and need for a clear plan and support structures, the larger point is that nothing can take away from the heartening fact that negativity around aging can be transformed into a better, brighter and more amazing experience of being alive.


Contents

Life events

Adversity in childhood, such as bereavement, neglect, mental abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, or unequal parental treatment of siblings can contribute to depression in adulthood. [6] [7] Childhood physical or sexual abuse in particular significantly correlates with the likelihood of experiencing depression over the victim's lifetime. [8]

Life events and changes that may influence depressed moods include (but are not limited to): childbirth, menopause, financial difficulties, unemployment, stress (such as from work, education, family, living conditions etc.), a medical diagnosis (cancer, HIV, etc.), bullying, loss of a loved one, natural disasters, social isolation, rape, relationship troubles, jealousy, separation, or catastrophic injury. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Adolescents may be especially prone to experiencing a depressed mood following social rejection, peer pressure, or bullying. [14]

Globally, more than 264 million people of all ages suffer from depression. [15] The global pandemic of COVID-19 has negatively impacted upon individuals mental health, causing levels of depression to surge, reaching devastating heights. A study conducted by the University of Surrey in Autumn 2019 and May/June 2020 looked into the impact of COVID-19 upon young peoples mental health. This study is published in the Journal of Psychiatry Research Report. [16] The study showed a significant rise in depression symptoms and a reduction in overall wellbeing during lockdown (May/June 2020) compared to the previous Autumn (2019). Levels of clinical depression in those surveyed in the study were found to have more than doubled, rising from 14.9 per cent in Autumn 2019 to 34.7 per cent in May/June 2020. [17] This study further emphasises the correlation that certain life events have with developing depression.

Personality

Changes in personality or in one's social environment can affect levels of depression. High scores on the personality domain neuroticism make the development of depressive symptoms as well as all kinds of depression diagnoses more likely, [18] and depression is associated with low extraversion. [19] Other personality indicators could be: temporary but rapid mood changes, short term hopelessness, loss of interest in activities that used to be of a part of one's life, sleep disruption, withdrawal from previous social life, appetite changes, and difficulty concentrating. [20]

Alcoholism

Alcohol can be a depressant which slows down some regions of the brain, like the prefrontal and temporal cortex, negatively affecting rationality and memory. [21] It also lowers the level of serotonin in the brain, which could potentially lead to higher chances of depressive mood. [22]

The connection between the amount of alcohol intake, level of depressed mood, and how it affects the risks of experiencing consequences from alcoholism, were studied in a research done on college students. The study used 4 latent, distinct profiles of different alcohol intake and level of depression Mild or Moderate Depression, and Heavy or Severe Drinkers. Other indicators consisting of social factors and individual behaviors were also taken into consideration in the research. Results showed that the level of depression as an emotion negatively affected the amount of risky behavior and consequence from drinking, while having an inverse relationship with protective behavioral strategies, which are behavioral actions taken by oneself for protection from the relative harm of alcohol intake. Having an elevated level of depressed mood does therefore lead to greater consequences from drinking. [23]

Bullying

Social abuse, such as bullying, are defined as actions of singling out and causing harm on vulnerable individuals. In order to capture a day-to-day observation of the relationship between the damaging effects of social abuse, the victim's mental health and depressive mood, a study was conducted on whether individuals would have a higher level of depressed mood when exposed to daily acts of negative behavior. The result concluded that being exposed daily to abusive behaviors such as bullying has a positive relationship to depressed mood on the same day.

The study has also gone beyond to compare the level of depressive mood between the victims and non-victims of the daily bullying. Although victims were predicted to have a higher level of depressive mood, the results have shown otherwise that exposure to negative acts has led to similar levels of depressive mood, regardless of the victim status. The results therefore have concluded that bystanders and non-victims feel as equally depressed as the victim when being exposed to acts such as social abuse. [24]

Medical treatments

Depression may also be the result of healthcare, such as with medication induced depression. Therapies associated with depression include interferon therapy, beta-blockers, isotretinoin, contraceptives, [25] cardiac agents, anticonvulsants, antimigraine drugs, antipsychotics, hormonal agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, [26] magnetic stimulation to brain and electric therapy.

Substance-induced

Several drugs of abuse can cause or exacerbate depression, whether in intoxication, withdrawal, and from chronic use. These include alcohol, sedatives (including prescription benzodiazepines), opioids (including prescription pain killers and illicit drugs such as heroin), stimulants (such as cocaine and amphetamines), hallucinogens, and inhalants. [27]

Non-psychiatric illnesses

Psychiatric syndromes

A number of psychiatric syndromes feature depressed mood as a main symptom. The mood disorders are a group of disorders considered to be primary disturbances of mood. These include major depressive disorder (MDD commonly called major depression or clinical depression) where a person has at least two weeks of depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities and dysthymia, a state of chronic depressed mood, the symptoms of which do not meet the severity of a major depressive episode. Another mood disorder, bipolar disorder, features one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, cognition, and energy levels, but may also involve one or more episodes of depression. [32] When the course of depressive episodes follows a seasonal pattern, the disorder (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, etc.) may be described as a seasonal affective disorder. Outside the mood disorders: borderline personality disorder often features an extremely intense depressive mood adjustment disorder with depressed mood is a mood disturbance appearing as a psychological response to an identifiable event or stressor, in which the resulting emotional or behavioral symptoms are significant but do not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode [33] : 355 and posttraumatic stress disorder, a mental disorder that sometimes follows trauma, is commonly accompanied by depressed mood. [34]

Historical legacy

Researchers have begun to conceptualize ways in which the historical legacies of racism and colonialism may create depressive conditions. [35] [36]

Measures of depression as an emotional disorder include, but are not limited to: Beck Depression Inventory-11 and the 9-item depression scale in the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). [37] Both of these measures are psychological tests that ask personal questions of the participant, and have mostly been used to measure the severity of depression. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a self-report scale that helps a therapist identify the patterns of depression symptoms and monitor recovery. The responses on this scale can be discussed in therapy to devise interventions for the most distressing symptoms of depression. [4] Several studies, however, have used these measures to also determine healthy individuals who are not suffering from depression as a mental disorder, but as an occasional mood disorder. This is substantiated by the fact that depression as an emotional disorder displays similar symptoms to minimal depression and low levels of mental disorders such as major depressive disorder therefore, researchers were able to use the same measure interchangeably. In terms of the scale, participants scoring between 0-13 and 0-4 respectively were considered healthy individuals. [38]

Another measure of depressed mood would be the IWP Multi-affect Indicator. [39] It is a psychological test that indicates various emotions, such as enthusiasm and depression, and asks for the degree of the emotions that the participants have felt in the past week. There are studies that have used lesser items from the IWP Multi-affect Indicator which was then scaled down to daily levels to measure the daily levels of depression as an emotional disorder. [24]

Creative thinking

Divergent thinking is defined as a thought process that generates creativity in ideas by exploring many possible solutions. Having a depressed mood will significantly reduce the possibility of divergent thinking, as it reduces the fluency, variety and the extent of originality of the possible ideas generated. [40]

However, some depressive mood disorders might have a positive effect for creativity. Upon identifying several studies and analyzing data involving individuals with high levels of creativity, Christa Taylor was able to conclude that there is a clear positive relationship between creativity and depressive mood. A possible reason is that having a low mood could lead to new ways of perceiving and learning from the world, but it is unable to account for certain depressive disorders. The direct relationship between creativity and depression remains unclear, but the research conducted on this correlation has shed light that individuals who are struggling with a depressive disorder may be having even higher levels of creativity than a control group, and would be a close topic to monitor depending on the future trends of how creativity will be perceived and demanded. [41]

Schools of depression theories include:

Depressed mood may not require professional treatment, and may be a normal temporary reaction to life events, a symptom of some medical condition, or a side effect of some drugs or medical treatments. A prolonged depressed mood, especially in combination with other symptoms, may lead to a diagnosis of a psychiatric or medical condition which may benefit from treatment. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2009 guidelines indicate that antidepressants should not be routinely used for the initial treatment of mild depression, because the risk-benefit ratio is poor. [42] Physical activity can have a protective effect against the emergence of depression. [43]

Physical activity can also decrease depressive symptoms due to the release of neurotrophic proteins in the brain that can help to rebuild the hippocampus that may be reduced due to depression. [44] Also yoga could be considered an ancillary treatment option for patients with depressive disorders and individuals with elevated levels of depression. [45] [46]

Reminiscence of old and fond memories is another alternative form of treatment, especially for the elderly who have lived longer and have more experiences in life. It is a method that causes a person to recollect memories of their own life, leading to a process of self-recognition and identifying familiar stimuli. By maintaining one's personal past and identity, it is a technique that stimulates people to view their lives in a more objective and balanced way, causing them to pay attention to positive information in their life stories, which would successfully reduce depressive mood levels. [47]

Self-help books are a growing form of treatment for peoples physiological distress. There may be a possible connection between consumers of unguided self-help books and higher levels of stress and depressive symptoms. Researchers took many factors into consideration to find a difference in consumers and nonconsumers of self-help books. The study recruited 32 people between the ages of 18 and 65 18 consumers and 14 nonconsumers, in both groups 75% of them were female. Then they broke the consumers into 11 who preferred problem-focused and 7 preferred growth-oriented. Those groups were tested for many things including cortisol levels, depressive symptomatology, and stress reactivity levels. There were no large differences between consumers of self-help books and nonconsumers when it comes to diurnal cortisol level, there was a large difference in depressive symptomatology with consumers having a higher mean score. The growth-oriented group has higher stress reactivity levels than the problem-focused group. However, the problem-focused group shows higher depressive symptomatology. [48]

Stress management techniques

There are empirical evidences of a connection between the type of stress management techniques and the level of daily depressive mood. [40]

Problem-focused coping leads to lower level of depression. Focusing on the problem allows for the subjects to view the situation in an objective way, evaluating the severity of the threat in an unbiased way, thus it lowers the probability of having depressive responses. On the other hand, emotion-focused coping promotes a depressed mood in stressful situations. The person has been contaminated with too much irrelevant information and loses focus on the options for resolving the problem. They fail to consider the potential consequences and choose the option that minimizes stress and maximizes well-being.

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, the United Nations (UN) health agency reported, estimating that it affects more than 300 million people worldwide – the majority of them women, young people and the elderly. An estimated 4.4 percent of the global population suffers from depression, according to a report released by the UN World Health Organization (WHO), which shows an 18 percent increase in the number of people living with depression between 2005 and 2015. [49] [50] [51]

Depression is a major mental-health cause of disease burden. Its consequences further lead to significant burden in public health, including a higher risk of dementia, premature mortality arising from physical disorders, and maternal depression impacts on child growth and development. [52] Approximately 76% to 85% of depressed people in low- and middle-income countries do not receive treatment [53] barriers to treatment include: inaccurate assessment, lack of trained health-care providers, social stigma and lack of resources. [54]

The stigma comes from misguided societal views that people with mental illness are different from everyone else, and they can choose to get better only if they wanted to. [55] Due to this more than half of the people with depression do not receive help with their disorders. The stigma leads to a strong preference for privacy.

The World Health Organization has constructed guidelines - known as The Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) - aiming to increase services for people with mental, neurological and substance-use disorders. [54] Depression is listed as one of conditions prioritized by the programme. Trials conducted show possibilities for the implementation of the programme in low-resource primary-care settings dependent on primary-care practitioners and lay health-workers. [56] Examples of mhGAP-endorsed therapies targeting depression include Group Interpersonal Therapy as group treatment for depression and "Thinking Health", which utilizes cognitive behavioral therapy to tackle perinatal depression. [54] Furthermore, effective screening in primary care is crucial for the access of treatments. The mhGAP adopted its approach of improving detection rates of depression by training general practitioners. However, there is still weak evidence supporting this training. [52]

The Greco-Roman world used the tradition of the four humours to attempt to systematise sadness as "melancholia". This concept remained an important part of European and Islamic medicine until falling out of scientific favour in the 19th century. [57] Emil Kraepelin gave a noted scientific account of depression (German: das manisch-depressive Irresein) in his 1896 psychology encyclopedia "Psychiatrie". [58]


More Comments:

Gary Ostrower - 1/19/2004

Not much new under the sun. Economist Murray Rothbard offered a nearly identical anti-FDR argument over 35 years ago.

Steve - 1/9/2004

Had WWII not happened, the United States very well may have continued through the Depression. It is difficult to discern whether policies being implented at the time would have had any affect without the catalyst of WWII. One must remember, however, that Roosevelt was not alone in his decision-making, nor did he have consensus. We also must remember that the Supreme Court ruled a majority of New Deal programs and laws unconstitutional. Would the Depression have ended in say 1934 or 1935 had the Court not ruled them unconstitutional? Perhaps not, but we will never know. To say Roosevelt was to blame for making things worse is obviously an agenda, rather than objective historical fact.


Holding companies

The unregulated structure of American business and industry created a series of huge holding companies. Holding companies own operating companies (companies that produce a product to sell). Holding companies provide overall direction and management advice, but produce no product or service themselves. To raise money to buy up operating companies, the holding companies sold stock and bonds to Americans, promising them that they were making the soundest investment possible—investment in American businesses. The holding companies used the money from stock and bond sales to buy large amounts of stock in many operating companies (companies that actually produce goods or services) so that they could control those companies. This practice was especially prevalent in utility, railroad, and entertainment industries. Part of the operating company's income went to its holding company. The holding company in turn used part of this money to pay stock dividends (cash distribution of profits) and interest on bonds to the investing public. If the directors of holding companies wanted more investment money, they simply formed another holding company that would buy out the first holding company. Eventually a house of cards developed, one holding company on top of another. When the stock market crashed, there were no more cash investors, and people could not afford to buy the goods of the operating companies. The operating companies could not make enough profits to support the various levels of holding companies. Therefore, the holding companies could not get enough cash to pay dividends and interest to the public investors. The whole house of cards collapsed, wiping out the public's investments. It was only after the stock market crash that Americans realized how many holding companies had been formed and how much power and control they had wielded.


Why was Herbert Hoover Blamed for the Great Depression?

President Herbert Hoover is often blamed for the great depression for many reasons, he had ideas put into place that were meant to aid the problems in the economy but hurt it instead. Pro-labour policies made by President Hoover after the stock market crash of 1929 caused the majority of the nation’s gross domestic product to decline over the next two years. This made what could have been a bad recession turn into the Great Depression. There were many reasons for the Great Depression, but the recession was worse than it would have been because of President Hoover.

President Hoover worsened employment more than it would have been because he kept wages too high for firms to keep up, this made the total gross nation product decrease. Hoover’s policy was an important event in causing the Great Depression. His policies on job-sharing and increasing wages were much of the reason for the decline.

Hoover’s attempts to fight the Depression were not powerful enough to defeat it. He believed too deeply in laissez-faire where the economy fixes itself eventually. He seemingly did not try hard enough to mend it himself, because of this the economy suffered dramatically.

The president was worried that the stock market collapse of 1929 would lead to recession and deflation, this would cause dramatic wage cuts and there was a probability of strikes if employees were not pleased with the wage cuts. Instead of having workers fired, President Hoover thought of a policy where wages were kept high and workers shared tasks. He thought this would help improve the economy because people would be able to buy more goods and services, but it had an unintentional effect.

President Hoover made a deal with dominant business leaders, to preserve salaries and establish job-sharing in order to try to keep as many people employed as possible. Many businesses acted accordingly to the presidents wishes, some even publicly broadcasted that they were complying with Hoover’s ideas. The idea was supposed to soothe problems, but it did the opposite. After deflation set in, the value of wages increased. This led to workers getting raises during a time when firms were not able to afford the increases and productiveness was starting to decrease. This ended up increasing the price of labour and production.

The president’s policies to start sharing jobs and freezing wages was a significant element during the depression. Firms continued to try to comply with President Hoover’s policies, so they fought this problem by firing employees and making the work hours shorter.

Another commonly known cause for the depression was that too many banks invested their money into the stock market, so when the stock market crashed the Federal Reserve could only cover a small portion of the banks. When the banks failed, savings accounts were cleared, and the money supply decreased (“Was President Herbert Hoover Responsible for the Depression?”). The dilemma is both problems where not obvious until two years after Hoover put these bad policies into place.

Businesses asked Hoover to relieve the wage freeze, but he continuously denied. Then they asked if they could increase prices on goods and services, but the president was opposed to that idea too. Companies had no choice but to stop following Hoover’s ideas because by then the depression was in full swing.

There are many reasons to why President Hoover is blamed for the depression. In fact, he was one of the main causes to why the depression was worse that it would have been without him. His pro-labour policies, wage freeze and job-sharing ideas were detrimental to the economy. He meant to do good by his ideas but did not calculate what the negative effects would be. Therefore Hoover is so often blamed for the Great Depression.

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