Battle of Rajowka, 10 September 1708The battle of Rajowka was a minor engagement during the Swedish invasion of Russia of 1709 (Great Northern War). It came during Charles XII of Sweden’s march east towards the Russian border. In the aftermath of the Swedish victory at Holowczyn on 4 July 1708, Peter the Great had withdrawn his main army into Russia, but left sizable cavalry detachments to harass the Swedish advance.
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Medieval Guilds played an important role in Medieval towns as guilds attempted to guarantee standards amongst crafts in Medieval England. A group of skilled craftsmen in the same trade might form themselves into a guild. A guild would make sure that anything made by a guild member was up to standard and was sold for a fair price.
Henry VII (king from 1485 to 1509) Control of barons ¯ ¯ Henry VIII (king from 1509 to 1547) Six Wives Reformation ¯ ¯ Edward VI (King from 1547 to 1553) Reformation ¯ ¯ Mary I (Queen from 1553 to 1558) Reformation ¯ ¯ Elizabeth I (Queen from 1558 to 1603) Mary, Queen of Scots Spanish Armada Related Posts Mary Queen of Scots Mary Queen of Scots, was born in 1542 and was executed on 1587.
Geoffrey Chaucer is the most famous writer of Medieval England. Geoffrey Chaucer immortalised Medieval England in the 'Canterbury Tales' - the stories of various people gravitating to Canterbury Cathedral at the end of a pilgrimage. Geoffrey Chaucer has to go down as one of Britain's finest writers. No one knows the exact date of Chaucer's birth.
Justices of the Peace (JP's) owed their offices to the king. By the reign of Henry VII, Justices of the Peace had superseded the local power of Sheriffs and were the chief local government officers. JP's were responsible for the maintenance of public order in their area of jurisdiction. They were also responsible for executing legislation that had been introduced in London.
Monastic colleges were found at Oxford University in Medieval England. The days when monasteries in general provided the best place for learning and scholarship ended with the growth of Oxford University. Monastic colleges replaced Benedictine monasteries, in particular, as places of learning. As houses of learning, even those in charge of these monasteries believed that they had gone stale.
Henry VII has usually received much praise from historians with regards to his financial policies. For Henry power, the extension of power and money all went together. A sound financial base was essential if Henry was to control both his people but more especially the powerful nobility in England. Henry also wanted to leave his successor a full treasury to ensure that he would have the means to fight for his succession if necessary.
The part Cardinal Wolsey played in the divorce proceedings concerning Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon has divided historians. There is little conclusive evidence that proves one way or another that Wolsey tried to sabotage Henry's desire for a divorce or that he was actively campaigning for it. However, there seems to be a general agreement that Wolsey was not happy about the whole divorce situation.
After the break with Rome, one of the issues that had to be decided on was who was to be in control of the Church in England and Wales. Many senior clergy wished for a solution that maintained a clergyman at the very top of the Church. They could see no reason why it should be any other way. However, it became clear that Henry VIII would not accept anything else other than royal supremacy and it is possible that Thomas Cromwell was in support of this.
Little relating to the divorce was actually achieved between 1530 and 1531. The loss of Cardinal Wolsey was a major blow to Henry VIII as Wolsey had a creative mind and was very hard working and the years straddled the time before Thomas Cromwell came to the fore. What did occur between these years was an attempt by Henry to bribe various renowned European theologians to come out in favour of supporting his divorce.
Jane Seymour was Henry VIII's third wife. Jane married him just eleven days after Anne Boleyn was executed. The marriage between Jane Seymour and Henry was on May 30th 1536. Jane was born between 1507 and 1509. The Seymour's were a well-respected and old noble family. Jane had been a maid of honour at the court of both Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn.
Henry VIII was king of England from 1509 to 1547. Henry's father was Henry VII and his mother was Elizabeth of York. Henry had six wives - 1 . Catherine of Aragon (divorced); 2 . Anne Boleyn (executed); 3 . Jane Seymour (died); 4 . Anne of Cleves (divorced) 5 . Catherine Howard (executed) and 6 . Catherine Parr (outlived Henry).
The Church that Henry VIII left Edward VI on his death in 1547 was very different to the Church he had inherited from Henry VII in 1509. In 1509, Henry's Church was subservient to the Pope. By his death, the Pope had little, if any, authority over a Church that had in 1534 seen Henry place himself at the head of it as temporal head.
Catherine Parr was born around 1512. She was Henry VIII's sixth and final wife. Catherine had already been married to a man called Lord Borough. She was in her teens and he was in his sixties when they married. Lord Borough soon died but Catherine soon re-married to a man called Lord Latimer. He was a frequent visitor to the royal court and Henry soon took note of Lady Latimer - Catherine.
Cardinal Wolsey acquired great power during the reign of Henry VIII. Wolsey's power extended to both legal and religious issues and effectively gave Wolsey the opportunities to influence just about most decisions in the kingdom. While he had the support of Henry VIII and while 'all was well', Wolsey was the most powerful man in the kingdom seemingly with unlimited power.
Thomas Cromwell, chief minister for Henry VIII from 1533 to 1540, gained a reputation for being a ruthless politician who stopped at nothing to succeed. Some historians of old portrayed Thomas Cromwell as an unpleasant man who in 1540 got his just reward - execution. However, in recent years, largely as a result of extensive research done by Sir Geoffrey Elton, a new view has emerged - that Thomas Cromwell was a very capable politician who brought in what was termed a 'revolution' in government.
Thomas Cranmer was one of the most influential religious leaders during the English Reformation. The influence of Thomas Cranmer spanned the reigns of three monarchs - Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. During the reign of Mary, Cranmer was put to death. Thomas Cranmer was born on July 2 nd , 1489. He was educated at Cambridge University and stated a career as an academic.
Henry VIII's foreign policy primarily involved France and the Habsburg Empire. Traditionally, Tudor foreign policy tried to steer a path of neutrality with both these states and initially Henry VIII's foreign policy was no different. Henry knew that England did not have the ability to take on either state but that as a nation she could profit from extending the hand of friendship to both.
Edward Seymour was the senior political figure in the reign of Edward VI before he was levered out of power by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. Edward Seymour, regardless of his loyalty to the king, was executed for conspiracy in 1552. Edward Seymour is thought to have been born in 1505. Seymour was the eldest son of Sir John Seymour and brother to Jane Seymour, the third wife of Henry VIII.
The reply by the Privy Council to Mary's letter to them outlining why she was the rightful successor to Edward VI was less than enthusiastic. Not only did it support Lady Jane's right to be queen but it also emphasised that the law had made Mary illegitimate with no right to the throne. It also gave a veiled warning that Mary's loyalty to Jane was an expectation and that she should be very wary of stirring up support for her cause amongst the people.
The Spanish Match is the term used to describe the circumstances behind the marriage between Mary I and Philip of Spain, the future king of Spain on the abdication of Charles V. The Spanish Match was not popular in England and was one of the reasons for the Wyatt Rebellion of 1554. After Mary's triumphant entry into London after the failure of the Duke of Northumberland's attempt to put Lady Jane Grey on the throne, there were those in government who wanted the issue of succession settled once and for all.